What is the Biblical Day, Week, Month, Year? and does it really matter?

Questions are often raised regarding the Biblical Day, Week, Month & Year, while some even regard it worthless. The internationally accepted calendar system(known as the Gregorian Calendar) which is in use today, is not the same as the Biblical Calendar. When God created the Sun and the Moon, it was for the benefit of His creation to know His Appointed times and also the divisions of days and years as He set it to be.

sun moon and stars
Let us examine the Scriptures and find out the Day/Week/Month/Year which is Biblically accurate, and study the differences and similarities of the Standard Gregorian Calendar which is in use today, to the Biblical Calendar instituted by God.


————————————————– DAY —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Day/Biblical Day
The Standard Calendar Day is calculated from Midnight to Midnight, while the Biblical day is from one Sunset to the next. The Biblical Day and Gregorian Day both seem to agree on the division of the day into a 24 Hour period. One could think that it’s strange to calculate a 24 hour day from one evening to the next. It actually is not that strange, when you think of the Gregorian day, which is calculated from one Midnight to the next. In the case of the Biblical Day, it starts with the Sunset, while the Gregorian Day starts in between the Sunset and the Sunrise.

The Biblical Day
♦ The Biblical day was divided into 12 Hours/Parts of Daytime (John 11:9) and presumably 12 Hours/Parts of Night (Mat 20:6)
♦ The Biblical day starts at Sundown
→ God’s Prophetic Appointments were to be from evening to evening [Sundown to Sundown] (Exo 12:18, Lev 23:32).
→ Nehemiah orders the Gates of Jerusalem to be closed when it was getting dark, denoting the sabbath started at evening (Neh 13:19)
→ The laws of uncleanness denotes that a person who becomes unclean because of a reason such as coming to contact with a carcass will be unclean till evening. If the person becomes unclean at night, he/she is unclean till the next evening (Lev 11:24,25, Deut 11:23)
→ A person who is put to death was supposed to be buried before the evening (Deut 21:22,23, Jos 8:28, 10:26,27)
→ Samson asks a riddle that needed to be answered within 7 days. The philistines answer him before the eve of the seventh day, denoting the end of the day was at sunset (Judg 14:12,18)
→ The sabbath was about to start when Yeshua was taken down from the cross in the eve (Luk 23:54, Joh 19:31)

————————————————– WEEK —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Week/Biblical Week
Both the Gregorian and Biblical Calendar weeks consists of 7 days. In ancient times, some cultures have had weeks which contained differing number of days and some cultures still use these today. Even though the number of days in a week, is equal in both Calendars, the day numbers vary. (Eg: Most European countries consider Monday as the first day of the week, while many Middle-East countries consider Saturday as the first day)

The Biblical Week
♦ The Biblical Week has seven days
→ God’s creation took 6 days and a 7th day of rest, so that the week contains 7 days (Exo 20:9-11)
→ The feast of Weeks (Pentecost – which means 50 days) was to be celebrated by counting 7 weeks (Lev23:15,16, Deut 16:9,10)
→ The number seven is connected to the word “week” in the Scriptures (Gen29:27)
♦ The days in the Biblical week did not have names such as “Monday, Tuesday, etc.” The days in the Biblical week were numbered as 1st Day, 2nd Day, 3rd Day, 4th Day, 5th Day, 6th Day & the 7th Day which was known as the Sabbath. (Exo 16:5,22, Exo 20:11, Joh 2:1)
♦ The 7th Day in the Biblical Calendar is the day corresponding with Friday Eve/Sunset to Saturday Eve/Sunset in the Gregorian Calendar.
→ The Greek word used for the “Sabbath” in the Original Manuscripts of the New Testament  “sabbato” is the same name used for Saturday in Greek even today! In other words ; In Greece, the day which is called “Saturday” is still called “Sabbato” – the same word which is in the Original Greek New Testament Manuscripts which is translated as “Sabbath” in English.
→ Look at the similarities in the names used for Saturday in other Languages and “Sabbath” – Arabic: Sabet, Armenian: Shabat, Bosnian: Subota, Bulgarian: Sabota, Corsican: Sàbatu, Croatian: Subota, Czech: Sobota, Greek: Sabbato, Indonesian: Sabtu, Italian: Sabato, Latin: Sabbatum, Polish: Sobota, Portuguese: Sábado, Russian: Subbota, Serbian: Subota, Slovak: Sobota, Slovene: Sobota, Somali: Sabti, Spanish: Sabado, Sudanese: Saptu, Ukrainian: Subota
The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. vol. 4, p. 988, tells us: The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to the celestial motions — a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable uniformity… It has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries. The Hebrew people spoke of the days of the week by number rather than by name. The only day that had a name was the seventh day which was called Shabat, the Sabbath, or the rest day. In at least 108 different languages the name for the seventh day, corresponding to our “Saturday”, is a word meaning “rest day.”
Some point out the Calendar changes in history makes it impossible to know the actual day of the Sabbath. This theory is inaccurate. The change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, has had no effect whatsoever upon the order of the days of the week. (click here for details on this calendar change). Because of this, the Calendar changes has had no effect towards Saturday which is still the same day Yeshua celebrated the Sabbath on.

————————————————– MONTH —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Month/Biblical Month
The Gregorian Calendar system has no reason for a Month to be 28,29,30 or 31 days. This system was a main characteristic of the Gregorian Calendar, and was done so that the days of the year would equal to 365 days. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, the Biblical Calendar depends on the Moon to calculate the beginning of the month. A complete revolution of the Moon is considered a Month in the Biblical Calendar. Science determines that a Moon revolution lasts roughly about 29.5 days, and because of this reason, a Biblical Month lasts 29 or 30 days.

The Biblical Month
The Biblical Month is connected to the Moon in Scripture
1Ki 8:2  And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast in the month(H3391-ירח- yerach-month) Ethanim, which is the seventh month(H2320-חדשׁ-chôdesh-new moon). The 2 Hebrew words translated as Month in our English Versions are “Yerah” and “Kodesh”. “Yerah” means Month, while “Kodesh” means New Moon. See 1Kin 6:38 as well.
Gen 29:14 & Num 11:20,21 contains “space of” or “whole” month, using the Hebrew word “Khodesh” while 2Kin 15:13 & Deut 21:13 contains “full” month, using the Hebrew word “Yerah”. Both these words are clearly connected, showing the relation of Moon to Month, Biblically.
♦ The New Month, or the first day of the Month is proclaimed when there is a New Moon which is identified by the first visible sliver of the Moon.
→ The New Moon(Kodesh) is mentioned as a “particular day” in 1Sam 20:5,18, 2Kin 4:23, Eze 46:1,6 indicating that it was a day which was proclaimed in some way.
→ The word Hodesh originates from a Hebrew word called H2318-חדשׁ-châdash which means “new”, “to make new” or “renew”. The moon itself is not renewed, but with the Lunar cycle, the light of the Moon increases, becomes full, decreases and goes dark. And it is again renewed, and the cycle continues. In this way, when the first sliver of light is seen on the Moon, the beginning of the month is proclaimed.
→ Some hold to the belief that the Conjunction (Full dark Moon) is the New Moon as per Modern Astronomy. This is hard to believe, as the people in ancient times would not have been able to accurately know the day of Conjunction as the Moon can stay dark for more than 2 days
♦ Much like the sun indicates the beginning of a day, the Moon indicates the beginning of the Biblical Month. Even an uneducated person could have understood when the New Month begins, just by looking up at the sky, with this sign that God created in the Heavens.

————————————————– YEAR —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Year/Biblical Year
The Gregorian Calendar system calculates a year by counting 365 days (366 days in a leap year) which is the time it takes for the earth to finish a revolution around the Sun, hence it is known as a Solar Calendar. The Biblical Calendar on the other hand, depends on the Sun and Moon both to calculate the beginning of the Year, hence being known as a Luni-Solar Calendar. Even though January 1st is regarded the day of the New Year in the Gregorian Calendar (Roman Consuls in the time of the Roman Empire, as far back as 153BC, first entered office on January 1st), The Biblical Calendar is determined completely differently.

The Biblical Year
♦ The Biblical Year began with the New Moon when the Barley Harvest was in the stage of ripening which was called “Abib” in the Scriptures. The period between Biblical New Years have 12 or 13 months or New Moons.
→ The month of the Abib is called the first month in Scripture (Exo 12:2, 13:4, 34:18)
Abib is a state of ripening in Grains. Exo 9:31,32 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear(Abib), and the flax was bolled. But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up. (H24 – אביב – aw-beeb’ – A state of ripening)
→ Abib is the state which is, in between the stage of green colour ripening grain and completely ripe golden streaks of grain. It is the stage when the grain is a light yellowish colour.
→ The Month of Abib is also known as Nisan in the Scriptures (Est 3:7, Neh 2:1)
→ The Month of Abib is usually the month that the Spring/Vernal Equinox happens
♦ To this day, the Karaite Jews in Israel engage themselves in an exercise called the Abib Search to ascertain whether the First Month can be proclaimed. This way, when the Grain is Abib and the Sliver of the New Moon appears in the Sky, the First Biblical Month is proclaimed.

Conclusion
One could ask whether knowing the “Biblically Accurate” dates, really matter? Or whether there is any value in understanding and studying these things and knowing both the similarities and differences in our Standard Calendar and the Biblical Calendar? When God says 7th Day, He means the 7th Day and no other Day. When He says the 1st Month, He means the 1st Month and no other month. Jeroboam the 1st King of the Divided Kingdom of Israel, did just this. He instituted a Feast on the 8th Month, which was like God’s Feast, when God had specifically told people to celebrate the Feast on the 7th Month (1Kin 12:32,33).

As Messiah Yeshua quoted from the Book of Isaiah, saying “Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men (Isa 29:13/Mat 15:8,9). It is my belief that it is better to follow God, than man. It is better to follow God’s Word, than any man’s word. And it is better to follow God’s Calendar, than any man made calendar.

I am in no way saying, that we should throw the Gregorian Calendar away, as it is recognized as the standard amongst the whole world. But I am saying that all of us need to learn God’s Calendar and use His days and His ways to worship, honor and draw close to Him. The lack of knowledge of His calendar has led to so many misunderstandings and mistakes in our walk with Him. His Appointed Times/Feast all depend on His Calendar. This is the same Prophetic Calendar which Yeshua used and fulfilled by His Death(Passover), His Resurrection(Firstfruits) and Giving of the Holy Spirit(Pentecost). It is time to mend our ways and come back to Him. Are we really too technologically advanced to adhere to His Calendar by lifting up our eyes to the Sun and the Moon that He created?

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29 thoughts on “What is the Biblical Day, Week, Month, Year? and does it really matter?

  1. robrichmond

    You say “The change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, has had no effect whatsoever upon the order of the days of the week. (click here for details on this calendar change). Because of this, the Calendar changes has had no effect towards Saturday which is still the same day Yeshua celebrated the Sabbath on.”

    So what occurred before that? Surely to substantiate that Saturday has always been the Sabbath, one would need to go all the way back using each Calendar system which existed back to when the lunar Calendar was used to be certain of this. I am aware that before this Calendar there was a 10 day Calendar. How could the Sabbath day stay the same?

    Personally, I believe God provided us all with the answer. He knew that this was going to occur, so he placed the Moon in the sky for us to be able to work out his sabbath days with. The Moon regulates the months. And then in scripture he provides us with the days the Sabbaths were to fall on, the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th days.

    He couldn’t have made it any simpler.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Hi Rob,

      It is an interesting point that you bring forward about the 10day week. But consider these facts.
      1.The Kingdom of Judah(Jews) has never had a 10 -day week calendar. Only the egyptians and pre julian rome used a 10 day week. The Julian calendar which was used from 46BC had a 7day week (that’s more than 40 years before Christ’s birth).
      2. Saturday as we know it today (which originates from “Saturn’s Day” as it was known by the romans) coincided with the “7th day Sabbath” and has remained unchanged from the days of rome.
      3. It is not that Saturday is the Sabbath. But that the “Sabbath day” instituted by God has been known as Saturday in recent times.
      4. If at Yeshua’s time, the Jews had got the Sabbath day wrong, Christ would have for sure corrected them. Since there was no arguments made by Yeshua on this matter, this shows that the day kept holy in Judea at that time was the correct day. (and this day has remained unchanged for centuries)
      5. Read below link for more historical proof for the validation of “Sabbath” as the day which we know as “Saturday”-
      https://biblethingsinbibleways.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/historical-proof-that-saturday-is-the-sabbath/
      6.The problem with using the moon to calculate the Sabbath is as follows:
      a. A moon cycle consists of 29.53 Days, which make a month either 29 days or 30days in length
      b. The Sabbath is every 7th day. Which means a week can only consist of 7 days. (an 8 day week would break this pattern and also the commandment of working 6days and resting on the 7th).
      c. For a sabbath to fall on the 8th day of the Moon/month(as you suggest), would also effectively make the 1st day of the Moon/Month a Sabbath. But what happens when there are 30 days in a Moon/Month. You can’t disregard a Sundown to Sundown as a Non-day, can you?

      a few facts to ponder on!
      May YHVH lead you to the truth and make you a great blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
      1. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Brother,
        You may need to prove this using the Scriptures and History for me to believe that it was not a week day.

        May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear brother Richmond,

        I watched the video you suggested. I still am not convinced of this, but I have a few questions that need to be answered.

        I wrote the following to a dear sister who spoke of the same idea you are suggesting. please see below:

        When I first started learning the truths in the Bible regarding the Sabbath, the new month and the appointed times of YHVH, I did come across what you speak of, popularly known as the Lunar Sabbath. I tested it to Scripture and the Moon Cycles and concluded it to be not in line with Scripture. I will give you my thought process, so that you can correct me if I am wrong.

        1. The Sabbath Commandment is connected with a 7 day cycle. (Exo 20:9,12 & 23:12) Six days of work. Then the Sabbath. Six days of Work. Sabbath. And so on.
        2. A Moon cycle is 29.53 days. This is a scientific fact.
        3. A moon cycle from New Moon to New Moon (Whether taken as sliver or conjunction) would be 29 and a half days long.
        3. The Lunar Sabbath proposes the Sabbath falls on the 7th, 14th,21st,28th days of the Moon – irrespective of what day it is. Which means the Lunar Sabbath can fall on 4 consecutive Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays or Saturdays.
        4. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, because of the Moon cycle, the sabbath day this month (for example Sunday) would change from the Sabbath day last month (for example Friday).
        5. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, there is a few days between the 28th which is a Sabbath to the next new Moon (say a day or two). Then the next 7th day of the month is again a Sabbath. Which means the days between 28th of this month and 7th of next month could be 8 or 9 days.
        6. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, Each Sabbath happens on the 7th day other than the last week, where it could be 8 or 9 days because of the Moon cycle of 29 and half days (29.53 – 28 = 1.53days)
        7. The 1 and half days which cannot be accounted for, breaks the Sabbath command of the 7th Day. (6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. 6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. and so on.)
        8. Furthermore, there is no Biblical nor extra biblical historical sources which can positively point at the keeping of a Lunar Sabbath.
        9. Jews whether they are Orthodox, Karaite or Messianic all agree on the 7th day Sabbath being Saturday.
        10. The word Sabbath in Greek is Sabbaton in the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament. And the same word is the word used in Greece today to identify the day we call Saturday.

        This is my thought process and reason why I do not believe the Lunar Sabbath is accurate. Please do share any information I am missing and if I am wrong in any place of my thought process, please point it out. I am critical of my own views and if I see your argument to be valid in all areas, I would gladly admit I have been wrong.

        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

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  4. Diane Fontana

    Each one of my sons were born in the month of 30 days is there a meaning to that biblically in the Bible even my fiance is born in the month of 30 days could you help me on this I am really concerned and want to know if there is something to this and if so what?
    I know that you said leave a comment but I really need this question answered.

    Reply
      1. Diane Fontana

        What I’m saying is it’s just surprising to me that when I had my children my oldest son was born April 13th 1969 which is the month of 30 days then I had my second son who was born November 29th 1972 then I had my baby boy which was born June 3rd 1974 and then I realized the love of my life was born in April it’s just ironic how each and every one of them was born in the month 30 days and I just wanted to know if there was we all know 31 days sometimes 28 days to a month but it just happened so all the men in my life were born in the month op 30 days and I just wanted to know if there was something biblical about that I guess my curiosity it’s just getting the best of me can you help me.
        Thank you and be blessed .
        Miss Fontana.

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Diane,
        Interesting question. The issue here is that the Gregorian Calendar which we use today, with its months from Jan to Dec, has nothing to do with God’s Calendar. Even though they are born in moths with 30 days according to our current calendar, according to God’s Calendar they could be born in months with 29 days or 30. I do not know of a special significance to be born in such months. April and June are the times of Passover and Pentecost. But November does not coincide with God’s Appointed days. I’m afraid I won’t be any help further than that… sorry.

        May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

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  6. Auls dorsette

    Hi, can someone tell me,if you all have ever read 1 Samuel-20:5,12,18,24,27 and other sand it?

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Dorsette,
      Yes. I have read the mentioned scripture passages before. Some have made the point that David, Jonathan, Saul, etc knew the new moon would be the next day, as it says “tomorrow” will be the new moon.

      I understand that 1Sam 20:5,18, etc seem to be saying tomorrow (as in the day after today) which leads many to believe that David & Jonathan knew the New Moon was the next day beforehand. But there is an issue with this claim.

      If you look into the Hebrew word used here for “Tomorrow” it is (H4279-Makar) which is used many times as “in time to come”(eg.Exo 13:14, Jos 22:24). Even when it is translated as tomorrow on our English translations, it can be read as “in time to come” more than the solid “tomorrow” which means the day after today. In fact, H4283 -mokorath which is used as the word for the solid “next day” is exclusively used for tomorrow. For example, in 1Sam 20:27 (just a few verses after the words in question) it says “And it came to pass on the morrow(H4283), which was the second day of the month, that David’s place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?

      The conversation between Jonathan and David could have been “Behold, in time to come(H4279), is the New Moon”. This is a plausible explanation, as if the Moon had gone dark, and the sighting of the Sliver was how they proclaimed the New Month… they could have easily said, in time to come is the New Moon… as they were ready for the celebration. I hope this makes even a little sense. Because of this reason, I tend to believe this verse cannot be used as proof to say that they calculated the First day of the Month well ahead of sighting the Moon.

      Reply
  7. Auls dorsette

    Let me say,if the sabbath is not on the days of the moon 7 14 21 28 you all have not keep the sabbath of yahweh month.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Dorsette,
      When I first started learning the truths in the Bible regarding the Sabbath, the new month and the appointed times of YHVH, I did come across what you speak of, popularly known as the Lunar Sabbath. I tested it to Scripture and the Moon Cycles and concluded it to be not in line with Scripture. I will give you my thought process, so that you can correct me if I am wrong.

      1. The Sabbath Commandment is connected with a 7 day cycle. (Exo 20:9,12 & 23:12) Six days of work. Then the Sabbath. Six days of Work. Sabbath. And so on.
      2. A Moon cycle is 29.53 days. This is a scientific fact.
      3. A moon cycle from New Moon to New Moon (Whether taken as sliver or conjunction) would be 29 and a half days long.
      3. The Lunar Sabbath proposes the Sabbath falls on the 7th, 14th,21st,28th days of the Moon – irrespective of what day it is. Which means the Lunar Sabbath can fall on 4 consecutive Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays or Saturdays.
      4. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, because of the Moon cycle, the sabbath day this month (for example Sunday) would change from the Sabbath day last month (for example Friday).
      5. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, there is a few days between the 28th which is a Sabbath to the next new Moon (say a day or two). Then the next 7th day of the month is again a Sabbath. Which means the days between 28th of this month and 7th of next month could be 8 or 9 days.
      6. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, Each Sabbath happens on the 7th day other than the last week, where it could be 8 or 9 days because of the Moon cycle of 29 and half days (29.53 – 28 = 1.53days)
      7. The 1 and half days which cannot be accounted for, breaks the Sabbath command of the 7th Day. (6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. 6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. and so on.)
      8. Furthermore, there is no Biblical nor extra biblical historical sources which can positively point at the keeping of a Lunar Sabbath.
      9. Jews whether they are Orthodox, Karaite or Messianic all agree on the 7th day Sabbath being Saturday.
      10. The word Sabbath in Greek is Sabbaton in the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament. And the same word is the word used in Greece today to identify the day we call Saturday.

      This is my thought process and reason why I do not believe the Lunar Sabbath is accurate. Please do share any information I am missing and if I am wrong in any place of my thought process, please point it out. I am critical of my own views and if I see your argument to be valid in all areas, I would gladly admit I have been wrong.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Erika,
      Shebat/Shevat is a name that has been applied to the 11th month in modern times and is not mentioned in the Scriptures as far as I know.
      May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
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  9. N Dudley

    Thank you so much for the article. The Lord has placed it on my heart to understand these things and know him. It is a little confusing, but with the help of the Holy Spirit and believers like you, the truth will be revealed to me.

    Reply
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  12. Rasta

    *)Day Of Rest
    Holy Day
    7th Day
    Day Of The Lord!!

    Is all The Same??

    *)And If Its “A DAY”
    Why Measure With The Moon(month)

    A Day ~= sun Set to sun Rise
    So Its About The SUN!!!!!!!

    OK!!

    *)THE WEAK(WEEK)
    Who established The Week?????
    (The beginning And The End)
    Who Decides The Numbers(1st 2nd 3th etc) and Or The Names Of The Days???

    Bilble does not give Day Names!!!
    Bible does not show WHEN OR WHERE
    to begin counting!!!(if I Am Left,(wrong)
    Please Wright Me!!

    Calendar!!!!
    Which Calendar To Be Use???
    7 day Week…
    8 Day Week..
    10 Day Week Calendar???

    The Enemy KONWS Scriptire(All Of Them)

    So Must We!!!!!!!

    Some One Help Please???

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother/Sister,
      The Day of the Lord refers to the Day He returns. 7th Day or Sabbath is the only Holy day in Scripture.
      The Day is referred to as the time from sunset to sunset. The Sun, Moon and Stars were created for the measuring of Days,etc.
      The 7 Day Week is from the Bible and there is no reason for a 7 day week otherwise. God said work 6 days and rest on the 7th. The 7th day which is also known as the Sabbath is what we now call Saturday. There is a lot of historical/textual evidence for this. A simple example is Christ rose on the 1st day of the week. The day known as Sunday. So what would be the 7th day, then? Is it not Saturday? 7th day Sabbath falls on Saturday.

      Be a blessing for everyone around you!

      Reply
  13. Rodolfo DOMINGUEZ

    If the new moon was sighted after the sunset late night, does the count starts the following afternoon or that same night in retroactive ?

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother Rodolfo,
      I believe that the count of the months started with the sunset as the Biblical Day started with the Sunset.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply

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