What is the Biblical Day, Week, Month, Year? and does it really matter?

Questions are often raised regarding the Biblical Day, Week, Month & Year, while some even regard it worthless. The internationally accepted calendar system(known as the Gregorian Calendar) which is in use today, is not the same as the Biblical Calendar. When God created the Sun and the Moon, it was for the benefit of His creation to know His Appointed times and also the divisions of days and years as He set it to be.

sun moon and stars
Let us examine the Scriptures and find out the Day/Week/Month/Year which is Biblically accurate, and study the differences and similarities of the Standard Gregorian Calendar which is in use today, to the Biblical Calendar instituted by God.


————————————————– DAY —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Day/Biblical Day
The Standard Calendar Day is calculated from Midnight to Midnight, while the Biblical day is from one Sunset to the next. The Biblical Day and Gregorian Day both seem to agree on the division of the day into a 24 Hour period. One could think that it’s strange to calculate a 24 hour day from one evening to the next. It actually is not that strange, when you think of the Gregorian day, which is calculated from one Midnight to the next. In the case of the Biblical Day, it starts with the Sunset, while the Gregorian Day starts in between the Sunset and the Sunrise.

The Biblical Day
♦ The Biblical day was divided into 12 Hours/Parts of Daytime (John 11:9) and presumably 12 Hours/Parts of Night (Mat 20:6)
♦ The Biblical day starts at Sundown
→ God’s Prophetic Appointments were to be from evening to evening [Sundown to Sundown] (Exo 12:18, Lev 23:32).
→ Nehemiah orders the Gates of Jerusalem to be closed when it was getting dark, denoting the sabbath started at evening (Neh 13:19)
→ The laws of uncleanness denotes that a person who becomes unclean because of a reason such as coming to contact with a carcass will be unclean till evening. If the person becomes unclean at night, he/she is unclean till the next evening (Lev 11:24,25, Deut 11:23)
→ A person who is put to death was supposed to be buried before the evening (Deut 21:22,23, Jos 8:28, 10:26,27)
→ Samson asks a riddle that needed to be answered within 7 days. The philistines answer him before the eve of the seventh day, denoting the end of the day was at sunset (Judg 14:12,18)
→ The sabbath was about to start when Yeshua was taken down from the cross in the eve (Luk 23:54, Joh 19:31)

————————————————– WEEK —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Week/Biblical Week
Both the Gregorian and Biblical Calendar weeks consists of 7 days. In ancient times, some cultures have had weeks which contained differing number of days and some cultures still use these today. Even though the number of days in a week, is equal in both Calendars, the day numbers vary. (Eg: Most European countries consider Monday as the first day of the week, while many Middle-East countries consider Saturday as the first day)

The Biblical Week
♦ The Biblical Week has seven days
→ God’s creation took 6 days and a 7th day of rest, so that the week contains 7 days (Exo 20:9-11)
→ The feast of Weeks (Pentecost – which means 50 days) was to be celebrated by counting 7 weeks (Lev23:15,16, Deut 16:9,10)
→ The number seven is connected to the word “week” in the Scriptures (Gen29:27)
♦ The days in the Biblical week did not have names such as “Monday, Tuesday, etc.” The days in the Biblical week were numbered as 1st Day, 2nd Day, 3rd Day, 4th Day, 5th Day, 6th Day & the 7th Day which was known as the Sabbath. (Exo 16:5,22, Exo 20:11, Joh 2:1)
♦ The 7th Day in the Biblical Calendar is the day corresponding with Friday Eve/Sunset to Saturday Eve/Sunset in the Gregorian Calendar.
→ The Greek word used for the “Sabbath” in the Original Manuscripts of the New Testament  “sabbato” is the same name used for Saturday in Greek even today! In other words ; In Greece, the day which is called “Saturday” is still called “Sabbato” – the same word which is in the Original Greek New Testament Manuscripts which is translated as “Sabbath” in English.
→ Look at the similarities in the names used for Saturday in other Languages and “Sabbath” – Arabic: Sabet, Armenian: Shabat, Bosnian: Subota, Bulgarian: Sabota, Corsican: Sàbatu, Croatian: Subota, Czech: Sobota, Greek: Sabbato, Indonesian: Sabtu, Italian: Sabato, Latin: Sabbatum, Polish: Sobota, Portuguese: Sábado, Russian: Subbota, Serbian: Subota, Slovak: Sobota, Slovene: Sobota, Somali: Sabti, Spanish: Sabado, Sudanese: Saptu, Ukrainian: Subota
The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. vol. 4, p. 988, tells us: The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to the celestial motions — a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable uniformity… It has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries. The Hebrew people spoke of the days of the week by number rather than by name. The only day that had a name was the seventh day which was called Shabat, the Sabbath, or the rest day. In at least 108 different languages the name for the seventh day, corresponding to our “Saturday”, is a word meaning “rest day.”
Some point out the Calendar changes in history makes it impossible to know the actual day of the Sabbath. This theory is inaccurate. The change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, has had no effect whatsoever upon the order of the days of the week. (click here for details on this calendar change). Because of this, the Calendar changes has had no effect towards Saturday which is still the same day Yeshua celebrated the Sabbath on.

————————————————– MONTH —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Month/Biblical Month
The Gregorian Calendar system has no reason for a Month to be 28,29,30 or 31 days. This system was a main characteristic of the Gregorian Calendar, and was done so that the days of the year would equal to 365 days. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, the Biblical Calendar depends on the Moon to calculate the beginning of the month. A complete revolution of the Moon is considered a Month in the Biblical Calendar. Science determines that a Moon revolution lasts roughly about 29.5 days, and because of this reason, a Biblical Month lasts 29 or 30 days.

The Biblical Month
The Biblical Month is connected to the Moon in Scripture
1Ki 8:2  And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast in the month(H3391-ירח- yerach-month) Ethanim, which is the seventh month(H2320-חדשׁ-chôdesh-new moon). The 2 Hebrew words translated as Month in our English Versions are “Yerah” and “Kodesh”. “Yerah” means Month, while “Kodesh” means New Moon. See 1Kin 6:38 as well.
Gen 29:14 & Num 11:20,21 contains “space of” or “whole” month, using the Hebrew word “Khodesh” while 2Kin 15:13 & Deut 21:13 contains “full” month, using the Hebrew word “Yerah”. Both these words are clearly connected, showing the relation of Moon to Month, Biblically.
♦ The New Month, or the first day of the Month is proclaimed when there is a New Moon which is identified by the first visible sliver of the Moon.
→ The New Moon(Kodesh) is mentioned as a “particular day” in 1Sam 20:5,18, 2Kin 4:23, Eze 46:1,6 indicating that it was a day which was proclaimed in some way.
→ The word Hodesh originates from a Hebrew word called H2318-חדשׁ-châdash which means “new”, “to make new” or “renew”. The moon itself is not renewed, but with the Lunar cycle, the light of the Moon increases, becomes full, decreases and goes dark. And it is again renewed, and the cycle continues. In this way, when the first sliver of light is seen on the Moon, the beginning of the month is proclaimed.
→ Some hold to the belief that the Conjunction (Full dark Moon) is the New Moon as per Modern Astronomy. This is hard to believe, as the people in ancient times would not have been able to accurately know the day of Conjunction as the Moon can stay dark for more than 2 days
♦ Much like the sun indicates the beginning of a day, the Moon indicates the beginning of the Biblical Month. Even an uneducated person could have understood when the New Month begins, just by looking up at the sky, with this sign that God created in the Heavens.

————————————————– YEAR —————————————————

Differences/Similarities between the Gregorian Year/Biblical Year
The Gregorian Calendar system calculates a year by counting 365 days (366 days in a leap year) which is the time it takes for the earth to finish a revolution around the Sun, hence it is known as a Solar Calendar. The Biblical Calendar on the other hand, depends on the Sun and Moon both to calculate the beginning of the Year, hence being known as a Luni-Solar Calendar. Even though January 1st is regarded the day of the New Year in the Gregorian Calendar (Roman Consuls in the time of the Roman Empire, as far back as 153BC, first entered office on January 1st), The Biblical Calendar is determined completely differently.

The Biblical Year
♦ The Biblical Year began with the New Moon when the Barley Harvest was in the stage of ripening which was called “Abib” in the Scriptures. The period between Biblical New Years have 12 or 13 months or New Moons.
→ The month of the Abib is called the first month in Scripture (Exo 12:2, 13:4, 34:18)
Abib is a state of ripening in Grains. Exo 9:31,32 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear(Abib), and the flax was bolled. But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up. (H24 – אביב – aw-beeb’ – A state of ripening)
→ Abib is the state which is, in between the stage of green colour ripening grain and completely ripe golden streaks of grain. It is the stage when the grain is a light yellowish colour.
→ The Month of Abib is also known as Nisan in the Scriptures (Est 3:7, Neh 2:1)
→ The Month of Abib is usually the month that the Spring/Vernal Equinox happens
♦ To this day, the Karaite Jews in Israel engage themselves in an exercise called the Abib Search to ascertain whether the First Month can be proclaimed. This way, when the Grain is Abib and the Sliver of the New Moon appears in the Sky, the First Biblical Month is proclaimed.

Conclusion
One could ask whether knowing the “Biblically Accurate” dates, really matter? Or whether there is any value in understanding and studying these things and knowing both the similarities and differences in our Standard Calendar and the Biblical Calendar? When God says 7th Day, He means the 7th Day and no other Day. When He says the 1st Month, He means the 1st Month and no other month. Jeroboam the 1st King of the Divided Kingdom of Israel, did just this. He instituted a Feast on the 8th Month, which was like God’s Feast, when God had specifically told people to celebrate the Feast on the 7th Month (1Kin 12:32,33).

As Messiah Yeshua quoted from the Book of Isaiah, saying “Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men (Isa 29:13/Mat 15:8,9). It is my belief that it is better to follow God, than man. It is better to follow God’s Word, than any man’s word. And it is better to follow God’s Calendar, than any man made calendar.

I am in no way saying, that we should throw the Gregorian Calendar away, as it is recognized as the standard amongst the whole world. But I am saying that all of us need to learn God’s Calendar and use His days and His ways to worship, honor and draw close to Him. The lack of knowledge of His calendar has led to so many misunderstandings and mistakes in our walk with Him. His Appointed Times/Feast all depend on His Calendar. This is the same Prophetic Calendar which Yeshua used and fulfilled by His Death(Passover), His Resurrection(Firstfruits) and Giving of the Holy Spirit(Pentecost). It is time to mend our ways and come back to Him. Are we really too technologically advanced to adhere to His Calendar by lifting up our eyes to the Sun and the Moon that He created?

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71 thoughts on “What is the Biblical Day, Week, Month, Year? and does it really matter?

  1. robrichmond

    You say “The change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, has had no effect whatsoever upon the order of the days of the week. (click here for details on this calendar change). Because of this, the Calendar changes has had no effect towards Saturday which is still the same day Yeshua celebrated the Sabbath on.”

    So what occurred before that? Surely to substantiate that Saturday has always been the Sabbath, one would need to go all the way back using each Calendar system which existed back to when the lunar Calendar was used to be certain of this. I am aware that before this Calendar there was a 10 day Calendar. How could the Sabbath day stay the same?

    Personally, I believe God provided us all with the answer. He knew that this was going to occur, so he placed the Moon in the sky for us to be able to work out his sabbath days with. The Moon regulates the months. And then in scripture he provides us with the days the Sabbaths were to fall on, the 8th, 15th, 22nd, and 29th days.

    He couldn’t have made it any simpler.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Hi Rob,

      It is an interesting point that you bring forward about the 10day week. But consider these facts.
      1.The Kingdom of Judah(Jews) has never had a 10 -day week calendar. Only the egyptians and pre julian rome used a 10 day week. The Julian calendar which was used from 46BC had a 7day week (that’s more than 40 years before Christ’s birth).
      2. Saturday as we know it today (which originates from “Saturn’s Day” as it was known by the romans) coincided with the “7th day Sabbath” and has remained unchanged from the days of rome.
      3. It is not that Saturday is the Sabbath. But that the “Sabbath day” instituted by God has been known as Saturday in recent times.
      4. If at Yeshua’s time, the Jews had got the Sabbath day wrong, Christ would have for sure corrected them. Since there was no arguments made by Yeshua on this matter, this shows that the day kept holy in Judea at that time was the correct day. (and this day has remained unchanged for centuries)
      5. Read below link for more historical proof for the validation of “Sabbath” as the day which we know as “Saturday”-
      https://biblethingsinbibleways.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/historical-proof-that-saturday-is-the-sabbath/
      6.The problem with using the moon to calculate the Sabbath is as follows:
      a. A moon cycle consists of 29.53 Days, which make a month either 29 days or 30days in length
      b. The Sabbath is every 7th day. Which means a week can only consist of 7 days. (an 8 day week would break this pattern and also the commandment of working 6days and resting on the 7th).
      c. For a sabbath to fall on the 8th day of the Moon/month(as you suggest), would also effectively make the 1st day of the Moon/Month a Sabbath. But what happens when there are 30 days in a Moon/Month. You can’t disregard a Sundown to Sundown as a Non-day, can you?

      a few facts to ponder on!
      May YHVH lead you to the truth and make you a great blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
      1. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Brother,
        You may need to prove this using the Scriptures and History for me to believe that it was not a week day.

        May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear brother Richmond,

        I watched the video you suggested. I still am not convinced of this, but I have a few questions that need to be answered.

        I wrote the following to a dear sister who spoke of the same idea you are suggesting. please see below:

        When I first started learning the truths in the Bible regarding the Sabbath, the new month and the appointed times of YHVH, I did come across what you speak of, popularly known as the Lunar Sabbath. I tested it to Scripture and the Moon Cycles and concluded it to be not in line with Scripture. I will give you my thought process, so that you can correct me if I am wrong.

        1. The Sabbath Commandment is connected with a 7 day cycle. (Exo 20:9,12 & 23:12) Six days of work. Then the Sabbath. Six days of Work. Sabbath. And so on.
        2. A Moon cycle is 29.53 days. This is a scientific fact.
        3. A moon cycle from New Moon to New Moon (Whether taken as sliver or conjunction) would be 29 and a half days long.
        3. The Lunar Sabbath proposes the Sabbath falls on the 7th, 14th,21st,28th days of the Moon – irrespective of what day it is. Which means the Lunar Sabbath can fall on 4 consecutive Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays or Saturdays.
        4. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, because of the Moon cycle, the sabbath day this month (for example Sunday) would change from the Sabbath day last month (for example Friday).
        5. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, there is a few days between the 28th which is a Sabbath to the next new Moon (say a day or two). Then the next 7th day of the month is again a Sabbath. Which means the days between 28th of this month and 7th of next month could be 8 or 9 days.
        6. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, Each Sabbath happens on the 7th day other than the last week, where it could be 8 or 9 days because of the Moon cycle of 29 and half days (29.53 – 28 = 1.53days)
        7. The 1 and half days which cannot be accounted for, breaks the Sabbath command of the 7th Day. (6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. 6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. and so on.)
        8. Furthermore, there is no Biblical nor extra biblical historical sources which can positively point at the keeping of a Lunar Sabbath.
        9. Jews whether they are Orthodox, Karaite or Messianic all agree on the 7th day Sabbath being Saturday.
        10. The word Sabbath in Greek is Sabbaton in the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament. And the same word is the word used in Greece today to identify the day we call Saturday.

        This is my thought process and reason why I do not believe the Lunar Sabbath is accurate. Please do share any information I am missing and if I am wrong in any place of my thought process, please point it out. I am critical of my own views and if I see your argument to be valid in all areas, I would gladly admit I have been wrong.

        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

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  4. Diane Fontana

    Each one of my sons were born in the month of 30 days is there a meaning to that biblically in the Bible even my fiance is born in the month of 30 days could you help me on this I am really concerned and want to know if there is something to this and if so what?
    I know that you said leave a comment but I really need this question answered.

    Reply
      1. Diane Fontana

        What I’m saying is it’s just surprising to me that when I had my children my oldest son was born April 13th 1969 which is the month of 30 days then I had my second son who was born November 29th 1972 then I had my baby boy which was born June 3rd 1974 and then I realized the love of my life was born in April it’s just ironic how each and every one of them was born in the month 30 days and I just wanted to know if there was we all know 31 days sometimes 28 days to a month but it just happened so all the men in my life were born in the month op 30 days and I just wanted to know if there was something biblical about that I guess my curiosity it’s just getting the best of me can you help me.
        Thank you and be blessed .
        Miss Fontana.

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Diane,
        Interesting question. The issue here is that the Gregorian Calendar which we use today, with its months from Jan to Dec, has nothing to do with God’s Calendar. Even though they are born in moths with 30 days according to our current calendar, according to God’s Calendar they could be born in months with 29 days or 30. I do not know of a special significance to be born in such months. April and June are the times of Passover and Pentecost. But November does not coincide with God’s Appointed days. I’m afraid I won’t be any help further than that… sorry.

        May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

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  6. Auls dorsette

    Hi, can someone tell me,if you all have ever read 1 Samuel-20:5,12,18,24,27 and other sand it?

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Dorsette,
      Yes. I have read the mentioned scripture passages before. Some have made the point that David, Jonathan, Saul, etc knew the new moon would be the next day, as it says “tomorrow” will be the new moon.

      I understand that 1Sam 20:5,18, etc seem to be saying tomorrow (as in the day after today) which leads many to believe that David & Jonathan knew the New Moon was the next day beforehand. But there is an issue with this claim.

      If you look into the Hebrew word used here for “Tomorrow” it is (H4279-Makar) which is used many times as “in time to come”(eg.Exo 13:14, Jos 22:24). Even when it is translated as tomorrow on our English translations, it can be read as “in time to come” more than the solid “tomorrow” which means the day after today. In fact, H4283 -mokorath which is used as the word for the solid “next day” is exclusively used for tomorrow. For example, in 1Sam 20:27 (just a few verses after the words in question) it says “And it came to pass on the morrow(H4283), which was the second day of the month, that David’s place was empty: and Saul said unto Jonathan his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to meat, neither yesterday, nor to day?

      The conversation between Jonathan and David could have been “Behold, in time to come(H4279), is the New Moon”. This is a plausible explanation, as if the Moon had gone dark, and the sighting of the Sliver was how they proclaimed the New Month… they could have easily said, in time to come is the New Moon… as they were ready for the celebration. I hope this makes even a little sense. Because of this reason, I tend to believe this verse cannot be used as proof to say that they calculated the First day of the Month well ahead of sighting the Moon.

      Reply
  7. Auls dorsette

    Let me say,if the sabbath is not on the days of the moon 7 14 21 28 you all have not keep the sabbath of yahweh month.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Dorsette,
      When I first started learning the truths in the Bible regarding the Sabbath, the new month and the appointed times of YHVH, I did come across what you speak of, popularly known as the Lunar Sabbath. I tested it to Scripture and the Moon Cycles and concluded it to be not in line with Scripture. I will give you my thought process, so that you can correct me if I am wrong.

      1. The Sabbath Commandment is connected with a 7 day cycle. (Exo 20:9,12 & 23:12) Six days of work. Then the Sabbath. Six days of Work. Sabbath. And so on.
      2. A Moon cycle is 29.53 days. This is a scientific fact.
      3. A moon cycle from New Moon to New Moon (Whether taken as sliver or conjunction) would be 29 and a half days long.
      3. The Lunar Sabbath proposes the Sabbath falls on the 7th, 14th,21st,28th days of the Moon – irrespective of what day it is. Which means the Lunar Sabbath can fall on 4 consecutive Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays or Saturdays.
      4. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, because of the Moon cycle, the sabbath day this month (for example Sunday) would change from the Sabbath day last month (for example Friday).
      5. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, there is a few days between the 28th which is a Sabbath to the next new Moon (say a day or two). Then the next 7th day of the month is again a Sabbath. Which means the days between 28th of this month and 7th of next month could be 8 or 9 days.
      6. According to the Lunar Sabbath proposition, Each Sabbath happens on the 7th day other than the last week, where it could be 8 or 9 days because of the Moon cycle of 29 and half days (29.53 – 28 = 1.53days)
      7. The 1 and half days which cannot be accounted for, breaks the Sabbath command of the 7th Day. (6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. 6 days of work. 7th day is the Sabbath. and so on.)
      8. Furthermore, there is no Biblical nor extra biblical historical sources which can positively point at the keeping of a Lunar Sabbath.
      9. Jews whether they are Orthodox, Karaite or Messianic all agree on the 7th day Sabbath being Saturday.
      10. The word Sabbath in Greek is Sabbaton in the Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament. And the same word is the word used in Greece today to identify the day we call Saturday.

      This is my thought process and reason why I do not believe the Lunar Sabbath is accurate. Please do share any information I am missing and if I am wrong in any place of my thought process, please point it out. I am critical of my own views and if I see your argument to be valid in all areas, I would gladly admit I have been wrong.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Erika,
      Shebat/Shevat is a name that has been applied to the 11th month in modern times and is not mentioned in the Scriptures as far as I know.
      May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
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  9. N Dudley

    Thank you so much for the article. The Lord has placed it on my heart to understand these things and know him. It is a little confusing, but with the help of the Holy Spirit and believers like you, the truth will be revealed to me.

    Reply
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  12. Rasta

    *)Day Of Rest
    Holy Day
    7th Day
    Day Of The Lord!!

    Is all The Same??

    *)And If Its “A DAY”
    Why Measure With The Moon(month)

    A Day ~= sun Set to sun Rise
    So Its About The SUN!!!!!!!

    OK!!

    *)THE WEAK(WEEK)
    Who established The Week?????
    (The beginning And The End)
    Who Decides The Numbers(1st 2nd 3th etc) and Or The Names Of The Days???

    Bilble does not give Day Names!!!
    Bible does not show WHEN OR WHERE
    to begin counting!!!(if I Am Left,(wrong)
    Please Wright Me!!

    Calendar!!!!
    Which Calendar To Be Use???
    7 day Week…
    8 Day Week..
    10 Day Week Calendar???

    The Enemy KONWS Scriptire(All Of Them)

    So Must We!!!!!!!

    Some One Help Please???

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother/Sister,
      The Day of the Lord refers to the Day He returns. 7th Day or Sabbath is the only Holy day in Scripture.
      The Day is referred to as the time from sunset to sunset. The Sun, Moon and Stars were created for the measuring of Days,etc.
      The 7 Day Week is from the Bible and there is no reason for a 7 day week otherwise. God said work 6 days and rest on the 7th. The 7th day which is also known as the Sabbath is what we now call Saturday. There is a lot of historical/textual evidence for this. A simple example is Christ rose on the 1st day of the week. The day known as Sunday. So what would be the 7th day, then? Is it not Saturday? 7th day Sabbath falls on Saturday.

      Be a blessing for everyone around you!

      Reply
  13. Rodolfo DOMINGUEZ

    If the new moon was sighted after the sunset late night, does the count starts the following afternoon or that same night in retroactive ?

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother Rodolfo,
      I believe that the count of the months started with the sunset as the Biblical Day started with the Sunset.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
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  15. samukelisiwe

    Since the day was 12 he’s and now its 24 hrs where did the other 12 come from I’m still new in christianity pliz help me understand

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother/Sister,
      There is a fair bit of confusion on the question you have raised everywhere. Lots of Christians confuse a 24 hour Day with the 12 hour Day. Already confusing, isn’t it? A Day is divided to 24 hours as we see today. This was the case even in Roman Times. When Yeshua says “Are there not twelve hours in the day?” what He is speaking of is Daytime… as in the 12 hours of Daytime. A 24 Hour Day is roughly divided to 12 hours of night and 12 hours of day. So we should not confuse the 12 hours of daytime with a complete 24 hour day.
      Hope this makes sense.
      May you be a blessing to everyone around you.

      Reply
  16. Doug

    I was wondering if any one considered applying the information that was given to Enoch very specific detail is givin on the sun and moon cycle it is very interesting and worth considering
    The Book of Enoch
    14) THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE LIGHTS
    72.1 The Book of the Revolutions of the Lights of Heaven.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear brother Doug,
      The Book of Enoch is an interesting work which should be read by every Christian. But I have refrained from using it to derive any Biblical Doctrines, as it was never part of the Tanakh as far as I know. There are some disputes on it’s authenticity. I call on everyone to be informed but nevertheless be careful how we derive doctrine from Apocryphal works.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
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  18. Tobes

    14 Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about them: “See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones

    Interesting that the only place that this is referenced to is to the same Book of Enoch. Funny that I only paid attention to this verse after reading the book of enoch to actually realise what Jude was referring to.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Tobes,
      I am sure there were many extra-biblical books in the 1st century and that many disciples would have read these. While there is a question whether the current Book of Enoch which is in circulation is the Original, there may have been reasons for it to never have been considered part of Scripture even at that time. Just as the Book of Jasher (again may or may not be the same book referenced in Joshua and Samuel) was never considered part of Scripture, even though it is used by Paul in the letter to Timothy (speaking of Jannes & Jambres). The other situation to consider is that it may have been from a 3rd Source which was read by Jude and copied to the Book of Enoch as well.

      I am aware of Enoch’s Calendar – But the authenticity of the Book of Enoch is in question.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
      1. Tobes

        I am glad that you mentioned the book of Jasher. In the book of Jasher Chapter 88, we see more details on the accounts of when Israel marched around the Walls of Jericho 1 time for 6 days and then 7 times on the 7th day. Our question was, if the 7th day is the Sabbath, how is it that they battled for 7days and killed everyone on the Sabbath? It is only possible if the First day was a New Moon day. The Book of Jasher confirms that. (Hebrews 11:30, Joshua 6:12-16, Jasher 88:14)

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Tobes,
        If you are speaking of the Lunar Calendar, I have only one question. Do all Lunar Sabbaths happen on the same “Day”(eg.Monday, Tuesday,etc)? If not How can each of those Sabbath Days be the 7th Day?
        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

  19. Tobes

    The 7th day is simply the 7th Day. Show me in scripture where the Bible says that the 7th Day is Saturday. Also Show me where exactly the Bible said that the 7day weekly cycle continued and was never interrupted. You cannot find such a scripture. Instead, you will find verses where God’s word said that Israel has forgot God’s Sabbaths and Holy Days. One example is :

    Lamentations 2
    6 And he hath violently taken away his tabernacle, as if it were of a garden: he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the Lord hath caused the solemn feasts and sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest.

    When God makes someone to forget something, there is no way you would remember. But here is a prophecy that suggest that it would be remembered:
    Malachi 4
    4 Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.
    5 Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord:
    6 And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.

    What do we have today as a counterfeit of Holy Days? Holidays like Christmas and Easter etc. Pagan holidays and the world recognise it.

    Our Father in Heaven who knows the end from the Beginning would have spoken of saturday just like he spoke of Cyrus in the scriptures even before Cyrus was born.

    Isaiah 44:28 That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.

    Isaiah 45:1 Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;

    Look at these prophecies above. God spoke of Cyrus before he was born who will do His will. Cyrus actually read of himself in the scriptures and when he did, he knew what to do in addition to the promptings of the Spirit.

    The New Moon Day shows us when the Sabbath is. Remember based on Leviticus 23:3, The First Feast is the Sabbath. And since the First feast is the Sabbath, and feasts are determined by the Sun and Moon according to Genesis 1:14, then we know when the Sabbath is according to the lights in the Sky. It’s a provision from God. It’s a gift for us. It’s up to us whether we choose to receive it or not. Genesis has the origins of many things.

    Take for example, the Provision of food:
    Genesis 1:29
    29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

    Is it still a good thing to accept the provision of food from Trees which God provided? Or should we ignore the trees and seeds and their fruit?

    God gave provisions for our diet, provision for Adam’s loneliness by giving him Eve, God provided a way for all man to establish and understand time.

    Satan is fighting against Marriage which was provided in Creation week, he is fighting against the diet which God provided for us, and he has found many counterfeit ways to fight against the time methods established by our Creator.

    Genesis 1:14-18King James Version (KJV)
    14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
    15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
    16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
    17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
    18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

    Signs, Seasons, Days, Years.

    Years consist of Months
    Months consists of weeks
    Weeks consist of days
    Days consist of hours
    Hours consist of seconds

    One of the reasons that I have not discarded what I have found concerning the New Moons and Sabbaths is because the Word of God shall stand forever. And the Word of God says that in the New Heavens and the New Earth, our worship assemblies would be regulated and structured according the when the New Moon is and when the Sabbath is.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Tobes,
      The Command is that “We may work six days, but the seventh day is the sabbath of YHVH”. So if you have a more than 6 days in between any 2 sabbath days… I think your hypothesis is questionable.

      Anyway, you ask for proof that Saturday is the Sabbath… Please read the link below.
      https://biblethingsinbibleways.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/historical-proof-that-saturday-is-the-sabbath/

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
  20. Tobes

    Very ethical of you to delete some posts and select which to answer. Also, the article sent does not satisfy the question/request posted because the question was: Where exactly in the Bible does the Bible say that the Sabbath was perpetual? Where exactly in the Bible does it predict that Sabbath would be called Saturday since the Sabbath is so important? Also where exactly in the Bible does it suggest that the week would never lose it’s seven day cycle? Instead, what we find is that the Sabbath is the first Feast(Appointed Time) in Leviticus 23. Appointed times which are appointed by God through the signs of the Moon and Sun.

    Also, you posted three witnesses of history to prove your thoughts. But its history written by people who probably are not God-Fearing. Also there are evidence and witnesses that prove that the weekly cycle was in fact changed.

    Another simple logical thought is that, we as Bible believers are telling others to come out of Babylon’s(Rome) confusion, doctrines, etc. yet hold on dearly to Babylon’s(ROME) Calendar?

    Interesting

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Tobes, I do not wish to make this thread a series of long arguments, which is why I do not approve multiple comments made by the same author. I do try to answer every question to the best of my ability, and I believe I have given the answers you asked for, and you are welcome to disagree with me.

      On the question whether the Sabbath is Perpetual… Exo 31:16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

      Calling the Sabbath Saturday, is Man-made. But this does not make the day any different. We can call the day after Friday, anything we wish… but History proves that this day was know as the Sabbath even at that time.

      The seven day cycle was created in the beginning as God Himself proclaims “Exo 20:10,11 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

      I would like to see the evidence that you speak of, which can prove the seven day cycle was broken after the time of Yeshua. I have not come across such in my research. Please d share it with me.

      How is it a logical thought to say that just because Rome chose to call the Seventh Day “saturday”, we are following a Roman Calendar? As I have shown in my post on this question, even in 63BC the day which was regarded the Sabbath was called “The Day of saturn” by Rome. Does that make the Sabbath null an void? Just because some Gentiles call the same day something else? To say that we shouldn’t keep the Sabbath just because the Gregorian Calendar day called saturday coincides with it, seems highly illogical to me… But I do appreciate you showing your side of the argument. I tend to disagree, as there is so much more evidence against a Lunar Sabbath than for it – especially the 7 day cycle. As I said before, I do not wish to prolong this debate any further.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
  21. Shoshana

    When Deu 16:1 was given there was no barley planted in the wilderness, it simply meant the greening of spring. They pretty much read Deu 16:1 as to observe the month of the spring. Before the Hillel II calendar was instituted the Sanhedrin calculated the Spring equinox, then calculated when the following new crescent moon would be seen and had the eye witnesses to confirm it. From there they declared the first month of the year. This is the method used 2000 years ago and apparently Yeshua or his talmidim had no issues with it. This year the Spring Equinox (or the month of the spring as they would have considered it) is March 20 thus the start of the year would begin with the new moon of April 17, making this calendar year a 13 month year.

    Reply
  22. Charlesvincent Agbisit

    Amen, thank you for the study.

    Question on Abib, or determining the First month of the year. Is the first month of the year the first New moon AFTER the ripening of the grain/vernal equinox; or will the new month be proclaimed in the CURRENT month that the abib is happening.

    Thank you, Shalom!

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother,
      Abib or Aviv is a particular stage of ripening of Barley when the grain is neither liquid or solid. It can be parched in fire to be eaten, as we see in Scripture. So when it is in that stage before the New Moon, we can be certain that the next new moon will be the beginning of God’s year.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
    2. Shoshana

      According to the way it used to be done prior to the Hillel II calendar, the new moon had to be sighted by witnesses in the Jerusalem area AFTER the change or tequfah of equinox which marked the start of the month of spring or aviv. Naturally in most cases barley would be in the abiv stage in large enough quantities.
      Regardless during the 40 years Israel wandered in the wilderness of what in effect was part of of its own Promised Land (Gen 15:18) they had no barley to present so the scientific usage of the equinox calculation is what they had to go by.

      Reply
  23. Joshua c.

    Is the sliver of the new moon the first day, or is it an indicator to start on the next Sunday (1st day of the week)? I have tried to keep the feasts for many years but just this year wanted to learn more about the right days, and I find all the info on the web very disjointed. I have enjoyed reading this page and alll the comments. And I would love to have a bit of help finding the correct day for Passover, as well as the 1st day of year ( 2018 Gregorian calendar)

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Joshua,
      It’s an interesting question you have raised… one which I have not considered. Let’s test it. All of the confusion and different interpretations exist because the Scriptures are not 100% clear on the subject. Since the conjunction, Sliver and this interpretation are all good perfectly viable choices, we are left with Historical Evidence as the only backup. The Historical Evidence overwhelmingly supports the Sliver Moon as the start. There are still some who say, that this was adopted by the Jews in their Babylonian Exile from the Babylonian traditions. I have a hard time believing that as Ezra and Nehemiah were very strict about God’s Law and letting go of all pagan traditions. Also the sliver was choice in the 1st century, and we don’t see any issues among the Disciples or Yeshua about the New Moon. So my belief is that the most probable option is the Sliver Moon.
      If it is the Sliver Moon, the 1st Day starts on the 18th March evening in the year 2018. Which means that Passover falls on 1st of April 2018. The Passover would be celebrated on the eve of 1st April.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
      1. Joshua c.

        So does that make the 18th the 1st day, or the eve and the 19th the 1st day? I was reading a web site that has people seing the sliver Sunday 18th in the evening…. does that make 19th the first day or am I misinterpreting how the evening is considerd. Is Passover on Saturday night and Sunday or Sunday night and Monday? Sorry for all he questions, just trying to wrap my head around it all.

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Joshua,
        I know the feeling. It will pass my friend. 🙂
        March 18th eve to 19th eve is the first day of Aviv. So the Passover Day is March 31st eve to 1st April eve. 1st April eve is Passover eve when the Passover Sacrifice was made… Yeshua died and was buried at a time like this. 1st April eve to 2nd April eve will be the 1st day of Unleavened Bread. 7th April eve to 8th April eve is the Day of Firstfruits as well as the 7th day of Unleavened Bread.
        Hope this makes sense. The best thing is to mark it down on a calendar. Hope this makes sense. 🙂
        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

    2. Shoshana

      The sliver of the moon seen after the vernal equinox is what ancient Israel used along with other considerations made by the Sanhedrin.
      The barley only calendar that has become popular of late did not come into existance till the 9th century. I pray the new Sanhendrin will soon take matters into their hands as far as the calendar goes. Better yet, I pray for Yeshua to return soon and end the confussion.

      Reply
      1. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Joshua,

        While there are many interpretations, I believe God wanted the Month of Aviv celebrated according to the Aviv Barley in the Land. We will surely have to wait for Messiah to teach us the right ways when He comes back… till then, we have to make do with Scripture and Historic accounts. I believe that the Month of Aviv started on March 18th evening as the Barley was in a state of Aviv along with the New Moon that day. For further study, please refer below link:
        https://www.karaite-korner.org/abib_faq.shtml
        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

  24. malaki Odhiambo

    please i would like to know according to the scripture what the first month is,is it January as gregorian calendar?

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Malaki,
      The 1st Month of the Biblical calendar starts with the new moon in March/April according to the Abib (Ripening of Barley in Israel). It has no correspondence with January or the Gregorian Calendar.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
    2. Shoshana

      The Gregorian calendar was created by the powers that be, specifically Mama Roma. They have been very much instrumental in the control of world affairs even before the Roman Empire was established. The only calendar recognized in Scripture is the one the Creator made, not the one made by the adversary. The Shabbat is the ONLY blessed and set aside day of rest since the creation of this heaven and earth. Father created the sun and moon (not the barley!) to indicate WHEN HIS feasts days are to take place. That means we are to use the vernal (spring) solar equinox to determine when to start the year. The FIRST VISIBLE moon seen after that equinox determines the start of the year. Of course by that time barley would have been ready anyhow, thus “month of the aviv”. The Sanhedrin used these main determinants to declare the start of the year. That is the way it was done nearly 2000 years ago. This year should have had an extra month added as per the ancient path but it was not, thus much disparity this year in calendar observance…

      Reply
  25. Nick

    You are almost correct. You’re forgetting that the day the new moon appears is also a holy day like the Sabbath. Psalms 81:3 blow your trumpet at the New Moon, at the full moon, on our feast day. NKJV
    KJV doesn’t say full moon but that’s ok. The point is, the day of the new moon is a feast day, a holy day of worship.

    Reply
  26. worldofwizardry

    Just to say I agree with the comments made by Shoshana. Gen 1:14 lays out the fact that God set in place the sun and the moon for days, moed (appointed times) and years. We know that it is the sun that determines the timing of days and, therefore, specifically the Sabbath – the first moed listed in Leviticus 23. We know that the moon determines the beginning of months and therefore the timing of the other moed listed in Lev 23 – Psalm 104:19 underlines this point.
    The sun and the moon determine together the start of the year. The Tekufah is not a word that most people use today but when you look at the writings of scribes in ancient Israel there was not the slightest doubt as to what it referred to. The same is true of Teshubah or Teshuvah as found in 2Chron 24:23 or 2Sam 11:1. God made it clear that the year does not start until after the Spring equinox but He also made it clear that the month does not start until the New Moon. Therefore, when He tells us that the first month of the year is Abib or Nisan we know that the first New Moon after the Spring equinox is the start of the first month and therefore the start of the year. After that, everything simply takes care of itself – the barley is ripe at the correct time and the Feast of Tabernacles (commanded not to be kept until after the Fall equinox in Ex 34:22) is always in its correct season. To my knowledge – willing to be corrected – God never ever says that the barley or the ripeness of barley is to be a sign for His people to determine His holy days.

    Reply
    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother,
      The fact is God did not explain how to calculate the First moon fully. A Spring equinox or anything that would point to such an event is never mentioned. But the ripening of Barley is mentioned in 2 places connected to this season. Also Abib (the name of the first month) itself is first seen connected to Barley. These clues make a good case to show the Abib Barley as a witness of the incoming year.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      Reply
      1. worldofwizardry

        Hi Ramesh, the writings you have on the site indicate you are well versed in scripture. Scripture reveals, I think you would agree, that our Father does things in an ordered, logical way. In Gen 1:14 we find that He has given us a sign to determine the start and end of a day. By consequence He has also shown us how to determine the start and end of a week. He has also given us the sign to determine the beginning of months. The verse concludes by confirming that these two great lights (the sun and moon) are also for years.
        From what you’ve already said you see that the sun is to determine start and end of days – just as Gen 1:14 declares. You also see that the week is determined in the same way. You also see that the moon determines the start of months and, by consequence, the moed of God – just as Gen 1:14 declares.
        The same scripture says that years also are determined by the lights in the heavens. Does it not strike you as incongruous and strange that when it gets to that point we should discard this verse; discard the sun, discard the moon and seek some other sign in a totally different time? God shows here that He put in place His moed, His appointed times in the creation week. Yet, looking to the barley would mean that God doesn’t actually explain how to determine them properly until some two thousand years later.
        Would that not seem an illogical way to show His approach to this subject?

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Brother,
        I do not wish to argue with you on this, but would just like to say that I see the ripening of Barley as a direct effect of the Sun which holds true to the Scriptures. You could say that the Barley shows an exact phase of the sun which can’t be seen to the naked eye. And I believe God created this calendar in such a way that even a lowly farmer or shepherd could look around and figure it out without any astronomical know-how.
        Be a blessing to everyone around you.

      3. Shoshana

        One thing to consider is that the farmers made no calendar or moedim decisions of any type. It was all done by the Sanhedrin and then the announcement was sent out to all Israel.

      4. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Shoshana,
        Absolutely. And it is a known fact that the Sanhedrin considered the Spring Crop as one of the most valid witnesses. The point is that anyone would be able to calculate the month with or without the Sanhedrin.

        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      5. Shoshana

        Actually the spring equinox, or what amounts to the spring or vernal equinox is mentioned 4 times*. It is called tequfah, the completion or turning of a cycle or circuit. You cant have Passover before it nor Succot before the fall one. Having said that, we need to check Gen 1:14 where it is written Yahveh made the sun and moon to determine His Moedim or feasts. Naturally by the time the vernal or spring equinox arrives the land in Israel is sufficiently warm for the barley and other spring plants to be aviv or bud as the case may be. In the fall it would be harvest time. Ancient Israel ,as did many ancient societies, knew how to make these calculations so that even in the wilderness Israel (who didn’t have barley or any grain in the wilderness, save what they took from Egypt) knew when to observe the moedim.

        The appearing of the new moon after the spring tequfah as testified by witnesses, determined the pronouncement of the start of the year. This resulted in the Sanhedrin announcement to all Israel.

        *Psa 19:6 his (the sun) going forth from the end of the heavens, and his orbit (tequfah) to their ends; and nothing is hidden from his heat.

        Exo 34:22 And you shall observe a Feast of Weeks for yourself, the firstfruits of the harvest of wheat; ALSO THE FEAST OF INGATHERING (Succot ) AT THE TURN (tequfah ) OF THE YEAR.

        2Ch 24:23 And it happened, at the turn (tequfah) of the year, that the army of Syria came up against him; and they came into Judah and Jerusalem and destroyed all the leaders of the people from among the people; and they sent all their plunder to the king of Damascus.

      6. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear Shoshana,

        I have seen all 4 verses. But can we make a conclusion that this is speaking of a specific day? How do the lay man recognise this particular day. I still feel the Abib makes a better case for the Month of Abib.

        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

  27. worldofwizardry

    I’d like to ask a question of those who declare that the New Moon determines when the Sabbath is to be in place. In Lev 23:5 we’re told that in the 14th day of the first month, at evening, is the Lord’s Passover. I realise there is some debate amongst people whether that evening is at the beginning of the 14th day or after sunset on the 14th day. If I understand what some are saying about the New Moon determining the Sabbath then the 28th (or 29th) would be a Sabbath each biblical month. Then it would seem that the 1st day is not a Sabbath and the 7th day or the 8th day is a Sabbath. Following on from that, the 14th day or the 15th day would be a Sabbath and then the 21st or 22nd day a Sabbath.
    In John 19:30-42 we find that the day of Christ’s crucifixion was the day before (a preparation day) a high day – it was the Feast of Unleavened Bread. We know from Matt 12:39 that Christ gave His sign – that of Jonah being in the belly of the fish for three days and nights so would He be in the grave for three days and three nights. The Pharisees also knew this; Mark 14:58 and then Matt 27:62-64 show that they knew Christ prophesied He would be resurrected 3 days and nights after His death. Luke 24:1-3 shows that the fulfillment of this was very early on the morning of the first day of the week. Other gospel accounts say it was before the sun had risen and yet Christ was not in the tomb.
    What all this tells us is that Christ was already risen before sunrise on the first day of the week – most likely He was risen on the early evening/late afternoon of the previous day which would be the seventh day. If we count three days and three nights from this we find that He had died and was in the grave on a Wednesday afternoon so as not to pollute the high day. Going by Lev 23, this High day would have been on the 15th day of the month and therefore this would have been the Sabbath….. or the Sabbath is on the 14th day of the month in which case the Jews had crucified Christ on the Sabbath. Further, three days later is recorded as being the seventh day because the very next day is declared to be the 1st day.
    We find that Christ and the religious leaders of the day were at odds about what could be done on the Sabbath but never at odds about which day was the Sabbath. From that we can conclude that the day the religious leaders recognised as the Sabbath was also recognised by Christ. There is no way – in my opinion – that the Jews would have crucified Christ on the Sabbath so we can conclude that at the time of Christ the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of a month were not automatically Sabbath days as counted from the New Moon. If the 15th day was both a seven day Sabbath as well as the first day of Unleavened Bread then there would not have been a “1st day of the week” a mere three days later.
    Do these scriptures not show quite clearly that at the time of Christ the Sabbath day was not counted from the 1st day of the month?

    Reply
    1. Shoshana

      Correct in your points. The new moon counting Shabbat idea is not supported by Scripture. It, along with flat earth, is another divisive notion to confuse even the elect if possible. Scripture is clear that Yahveh rested on the 7th day of this creation.

      Reply

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