What did Christ, His Disciples & Paul consider as “Scripture”?

Sounds like a silly question, doesn’t it? What was considered as Scripture in the 1st century AD? One would say “Obviously the Bible”. But hang on! Did anyone inclusive of Paul, carry our Bible? Did they carry a Bible at all? Did Paul consider his own writings as Scripture? Did he read or ever hold his letters which were written to specific assemblies in different cities, as Scripture? Let’s check what our Bibles say about the matter.

The Bible – A Brief History
Our current Bibles are composed of 2 sections divided as The Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament in our English Translation consist of 39 books, while the new contains 27.

The New Testament containing 27 books/letters which were first put together in 367, by Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, and is said to have been accepted by the Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa in 393AD and again accepted by the Councils of Carthage in 397 and 419. The oldest Manuscripts of the New Testament are preserved in Greek – the main language of the 1st Century, while the original works such as Matthew’s Gospel is said to have been written in Hebrew according to Papias.

While there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Old Testament Canon was fixed, some scholars argue that it was done in the time of the Hasmonean dynasty (140BC – 116BC). The Old Testament” as we call it, was completely written in Hebrew and consisted of three divisions – The Torah (5 Books of Moses i.e. Genesis to Deuteronomy), The Nevi’im (Prophets) & The Ketuvim (Writings/Psalms).

The Old Testament divisions can be seen mentioned in the verses below

Luk 24:27  And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Luk 24:44  And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
Joh 1:45  Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.
Act 26:22,23  Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come: That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.
Act 28:23  And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening.

yeshua_scrollThe phrases “Moses”, “Law” or “Law of Moses” in the New Testament, denotes the first 5 Books of the Old Testament which were written by Moses. “Prophets” denotes all the books written by the Prophets such as Jeremiah, Isaiah, Obadiah, Daniel, etc. The Psalms and the rest of the writings together with “Moses” and “Prophets” put together, made up the Old Testament in the 1st Century AD.

1) Law (also known as Moses, Law of Moses or Law) wherever you see these terms referred in the New Testament writing, it means the first 5 Books of the Bible which were written by Moses – Mat 5:17, 7:12, 22:40, Mar 12:26, Luk 2:22, Luk 16:29,31, 24:27,44, Joh 1:45, 5:45, 7:23, Act 6:11, 13:15,39, 15:5, 21:21, 24:14, 26:22, 28:23, 1Cor 9:9, 2Cor 3:15, Heb 10:28, Rom 3:21
2) Prophets which contains all the Major and Minor Prophets – Mat 5:17, 7:12, 22:40, Luk 16:29,31, 24:27,44, Joh 1:45, Act 7:42, 13:15,40, 24:14, 26:22, 28:23, Rom 3:21
3) Psalms (also known as the Writings) which contains the Book of Psalms and the rest of the writings – Luk 20:42, 24:44, Act 1:20

The Format of the Scriptures that were read by Christ, the Disciples & Paul
In our minds whenever we read the New Testament writings, we see everyone opening books and reading from bound books that we are familiar with. But the truth is that there were no bound books at the time. Printing would be introduced 1500 years later. So what was the format of the Scriptures they had? All of the writings were copied on Scrolls made of parchment/Animal skin and rolled and kept. We can see an instance of this in Luke 4:17.

Luk 4:17 And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened(g380) the book(g975), he found the place where it was written,

scribe1In the above verse “opened” should be translated as “unrolled” according to the Greek word used there (G380 – ἀναπτύσσω – anaptussō – Thayer’s Greek Definition: to unroll). Furthermore, the word used for “book” can mean a scroll as the same word (G975 – βιβλίον – biblion)  is seen again in Rev 6:14 translated as Scroll. These scrolls were copied by hand, with the utmost care and it is said that it would take a scribe a whole year and the skins of a whole herd of sheep to create one copy of the 5 books of Moses.

The Availability of the Scriptures that were read by Christ, the Disciples & Paul
Just as most of us imagine Christ, the disciples and even Paul reading a bound Bible, when in fact they were reading rolled up Scrolls – some imagine that the early Christians carried their own copy of the Scriptures. It is very unlikely that the early believers even owned a copy of the Scriptures, as it was quite costly. Only the Synagogues in each of the cities would have a copy that could be read on the Sabbath day when the people assembled together.  

Christ considered what we call the Old Testament as Scripture
Yeshua(Jesus’ true name) speaks of no other writing other than the books of Moses, Prophets & Writings/Psalms as “Scripture” (Mat 21:42, Mat 22:29, Mat 26:54,56,  Mar 12:10,24, Mar 14:49, Luk 4:21, Joh 5:39, Joh 7:38, Joh 10:35, Joh 13:18, Joh 17:12)

The Gospel writers and the disciples considered what we call the Old Testament as Scripture
Gospel writers Mark, Luke, John, other disciples, James and even Peter refers to the Old Testament as “Scripture” (Mar 15:28, Luk 24:27, Luk 24:32, Luk 24:45, Joh 2:22, Joh 19:24, Joh 19:28, Joh 19:36,37, Joh 20:9, Act 1:16, Act 8:32,35, Act 17:2,11, Act 18:24,28, Jas 2:8, Jas 2:23, Jas 4:5, 1Pet 2:6, 2Pet 1:20, 2Pet 3:16)

Paul considered what we call the Old Testament as Scripture
In so many instances Paul refers to the Old Testament calling it “The Scriptures”. (Rom 1:2, Rom 4:3, Rom 9:17, Rom 10:11, Rom 11:2, Rom 16:26, 1Cor 15:3,4, Gal 3:8,22, Gal 4:30, 1Tim 5:18, 2Tim 3:16). Out of this list, of special concern is a beloved verse which almost every Christian knows by heart.

2Ti 3:15-17 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.

Paul tells his beloved son Timothy that he has known the Holy Scriptures from the time he was a child. The Holy Scripture mentioned here could only be what we refer as the Old Testament. Paul adds to his words explaining that all of the Scriptures are given by the inspiration of God for teaching, as proof, to correct and to train in righteousness. While most of us read 2Tim 3:16 believing it is speaking of our Bibles when it says “Scripture”, it is clear that Paul is referring to the Scriptures that they had. The Scripture which Timothy was familiar with from the time he was a child. What we refer to as the Old Testament.

Today’s view of the Old Testament and the New Testament
OT NTMany Christians see the Old Testament to have been given only for the Jews/Israel while the New Testament to be given to the Gentile/Christian. While there was no New Testament in the hands of Christ, His disciples or Paul – they would have never imagined of a congregation that believes in Messiah while giving the least bit of attention to the Old Testament – the “Holy Scriptures” in their eyes. The man-made division of “Old Testament” & “New Testament”, has brought only division to the Christian body as a whole. Many denominations have made the True Scripture, an enemy of the Christian. They have turned its oulook into a curse. Something which is “Old” and done away. Only if more Christians would pay attention to what the writers of the New Testament say, in their original context. Today’s Christian is not being built on the foundation of the True Scripture – as most new believers are told to even skip the Old Testament and start with the New. We forget that the Bereans who were called noble, turned to Scripture when it came to checking Paul’s words. If only all of us Christians today, turned to the Scriptures to check whether all of the doctrines taught to us by our pastors, teachers and denominations agreed with Scripture!

While all the proof in the New Testament writings point towards the “Old Testament” being referred to exclusively as Scripture, many Christians today give the “Scriptures” of our Messiah, His Disciples and even Paul, step-motherly treatment. Some are engrossed so much in the New Testament, that they see no reason to read the “Holy Scriptures” as Paul mentioned them. The New Testament is looked upon to provide teaching, proof, correction and training, while the Old Testament is seen as an abolished book today. Paul could not have been referring to His own writings as “Scripture”, as these letters were written to specific individuals and congregations, tackling specific issues distinct to those individuals/congregations. For example, Paul’s letter to the Roman Congregation, was sent to Rome and not Corinth, Colosse, Ephesus, Thessalonica, etc. His letter to Timothy was written specifically to Timothy and no one else.

Furthermore, these individual letters that constitute the New Testament were put together and agreed upon as canonical only in the late 4th Century. The New Testament writings are a necessary part of a Christians life, as it reveals to us about Christ, His disciples and their teachings. But we should not forget that what they considered as “Scripture” was nothing else other than what we call the Old Testament books of Moses, the Prophets & the Psalms. It is time that Christians wake up and give the proper place that “God’s Word” the “Holy Scriptures” deserve!

22 thoughts on “What did Christ, His Disciples & Paul consider as “Scripture”?

  1. djai4true

    Grace and peace be multiplied unto you through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our Lord, According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue:”2 Peter 1:2,3*Saints, Grace and Peace are multiplied in our lives “through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our Lord”. Relationship is critical for our growth! We must KNOW God AND Jesus our LORD! The Old Testament reveals GOD Almighty, the New Testament reveals The Only begotten Son of GOD Jesus Christ, TOGETHER brings us into relationship with the Father and Son through the Holy Spirit! “Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.”1Peter 1:4*”that we might be partakers of the DIVINE NATURE.” This glorious transformation takes place through the knowledge of GOD (Found in the OLD Testament) and JESUS CHRIST (Found in the New Testament)!

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear djai4true,
      I believe that the knowledge of the New Testament writings are in fact an absolutely necessary part in a Christian’s life – if not for the Gospels, we would not known about messiah’s first coming. If not for the other letters, we would not have known about the life, problems, questions of the early congregation. But this does not change the subject of this post – what did Christ, His disciples and Paul consider as “Scripture”? – to which the answer is what we call the Old Testament. I wish mainline Christianity saw it the same way, as it was referred to in the Bible, so that I would not have to do a post pointing it out – but we live in a time where the “Scripture” of Christ, His Disciples and even Paul is considered an “Old” obsolete set of stories for Sunday School and Children. My heart breaks to think of the current situation… but here we are.

      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      1. David Brandon Calderhead

        To say that The New Testament is not scripture is to say that Paul and the other Gospel and letter writers plus the book of Revelation was not given to those writers by the Holy Spirit. All scripture is God breathed remember? You are saying that God Almighty cannot work through those writers and put together the New Covenant the way He wanted it written down and put together. The New Covenant began afterwArds was crucified please read the book of Hebrews. You are treading on very thin ice. Your article is blasphemous!!! Hey We are under a New Covenant now in The blood of Jeshua the Christ. The Old and New Testament are to be rightly divided and studied by every Christian. You need to repent of your blasphemous article soon.

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear David,
        I am not saying anything blasphemous in this article. It is very clear that Yeshua, the disciples and Paul all considered what we call The Old Testament as Scripture. All Scripture is God breathed, absolutely! But what is Paul referring to there? He mentions that Timothy knew the Holy Scriptures from when he was a child. Are you saying that the New Testament writings were what Paul is referring to here? ” 2Ti 3:15 KJV And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.
        As I mentioned in the article I am not demeaning the New Testament writings. Just saying that we need to give the due respect that the Old Testament(as we refer to it) had in the 1st Century.

        May you be a blessing to everyone around you

  2. Pingback: The Veil of Moses – Misunderstandings regarding 2 Corinthians 3:12-18 | Bible things in Bible ways

  3. Pingback: Unclean Foods sanctified by God’s Word and Prayer? Misunderstandings regarding 1Tim 4:1-5 | Bible things in Bible ways

  4. Pingback: Can God, His Word or His Covenants change? | Bible things in Bible ways

  5. Pingback: The Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus | Bible things in Bible ways

  6. Pingback: The Ten Words of God | Bible things in Bible ways

  7. Pingback: What is the Kingdom of God? and how do we seek it? | Bible things in Bible ways

  8. Pingback: Bible things Bible ways | Jesus Christ Lord Savior

  9. Pingback: Listening to God and being heard by God – Hineni – “Here I am” | Bible things in Bible ways

  10. Pingback: The nature of the Unbreakable Covenant | Bible things in Bible ways

  11. Pingback: Is Yeshua the Promised Messiah? | Bible things in Bible ways

  12. J

    And account that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you;

    16 As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.
    2 Peter 3:15-16 KJV

    For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;

    4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

    5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
    1 Corinthians 15:3-5 KJV

    Didn’t they also consider New Testament writings divinely inspired, and thus “scripture”, as refrenced in these verses?

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Hi J,
      Is Peter and and Paul referring to the New Testament as Scriptures in these examples? 1Cor 15:3-5 is clearly speaking of the TaNaKh (Old Testament) as all the prophecies that the Gospel writers allude to, are contained in the Tanakh. There is another reason why it is unlikely that the Words of Paul & Peter or even the Gospels is what they are speaking of when they speak of Scripture in places such as 2 Pet 3:15,16. The reason is that these letters were addressed to particular people and congregations. Especially the letters of Paul were addressing different issues that were identified in different congregations. Copies of these letters and documents were also not available the same way in their day. It was around 300AD when the New Testament books were put into a certain order and recognised as one document. So it is more probable that Peter is speaking of the other writings such as the Prophets and the Writings (which were also not in a book form even though they were recognized as Scripture. On the other hand it is very clear that Yeshua called the books of the Tanakh as Scripture.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

      1. J

        For the scripture saith, thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.
        1 Timothy 5:18

        While it is true the first half is a quote from the Old Testament, the second part is found nowhere in it. it’s exclusively from the gospel of Mark.

      2. rameshdesilva Post author

        Dear J,
        Is Paul quoting the Gospel of Matthew/Luke or is He quoting Yeshua? He is quoting the Torah and clearly calling it Scripture while endorsing the point further with Yeshua’s words. Paul quoted Yeshua just like this in Acts 20:35 to make a point.
        Be a blessing to everyone around you!

  13. Pingback: Blaspheming the Spirit and the Sin without forgiveness | Bible things in Bible ways

  14. Juliet McIntosh

    Absolutely! We are the poorer if we do not read, study and meditate on the whole of scripture. We cannot fully grasp the wonder of the gospel if we don’t understand Genesis 1-3, for instance. Nor see Jesus as the promised ‘sent one’ without reading the prophets, including David. We are such a privileged people to have the revelation of God in our hands and in our language.

  15. Pingback: Our Resurrection in Christ as seen in Exodus 15:22-27 | Bible things in Bible ways

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s