Sabbath Shalom! As the world steps into the 7th day millions around the world greet each other by saying “Sabbath Shalom”. The word “Shalom” has been a greeting used even in Biblical times to greet one another, and is still used to this day in Israel to greet each other. As we say Hello or Goodbye to someone, in Biblical times “Shalom” was used as the word of choice to greet a person. But what does “Shalom” really mean? Is it peace? completeness? Let us look at what the Scriptures reveal.
שׁלם / שׁלום
1) completeness, soundness, welfare, peace
1a) completeness (in number)
1b) safety, soundness (in body)
1c) welfare, health, prosperity
1d) peace, quiet, tranquillity, contentment
1e) peace, friendship
1e1) of human relationships
1e2) with God especially in covenant relationship
1f) peace (from war)
1g) peace (as adjective)
Shalom as a greeting
These are some of the many instances when the word “Shalom” was used as a greeting when meeting a person or taking their leave.
Gen 29:6 And he said unto them,
Ishe well?(Shalom-H7965) And they said, He iswell(Shalom-H7965): and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the sheep.
Gen 43:23 And he said, Peace(Shalom-H7965) be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money. And he brought Simeon out unto them.
Exo 4:18 And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace(Shalom-H7965).
Jdg 6:23 And the LORD said unto him, Peace(Shalom-H7965) be unto thee; fear not: thou shalt not die.
Jdg 19:20 And the old man said, Peace(Shalom-H7965) be with thee; howsoever let all thy wants lie upon me; only lodge not in the street.
1Sa 1:17 Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace(Shalom-H7965): and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him.
2Sa 15:9 And the king said unto him, Go in peace(Shalom-H7965). So he arose, and went to Hebron.
2Ki 5:21 So Gehazi followed after Naaman. And when Naaman saw him running after him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet him, and said,
2Ki 5:22 And he said, All
iswell(Shalom-H7965). My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.
Jer 15:5 For who shall have pity upon thee, O Jerusalem? or who shall bemoan thee? or who shall go aside to ask how thou doest(Shalom-H7965)?
Dan 10:19 And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace(Shalom-H7965) be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.
In many of the above interactions we see “Shalom” being used in the same way we say Hello today. But it is also the same word used in saying your farewells.
The many meanings of Shalom
As we see in the BDB Hebrew Dictionary Definition, the word Shalom has quite a few meanings which are used throughout the Scriptures. Some of the most popular meanings are:
Peace from War
Jdg 4:17 Howbeit Sisera fled away on his feet to the tent of Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite: for there was peace(Shalom-H7965) between Jabin the king of Hazor and the house of Heber the Kenite.
Ecc 3:8 A time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace(Shalom-H7965).
1Ki 5:12 And the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, as he promised him: and there was peace(Shalom-H7965) between Hiram and Solomon; and they two made a league together.
Gen 37:14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well(Shalom-H7965) with thy brethren, and well(Shalom-H7965) with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.
2Sa 18:29 And the king said, Is the young man Absalom safe(Shalom-H7965)? And Ahimaaz answered, When Joab sent the king’s servant, and me thy servant, I saw a great tumult, but I knew not what it was.
Job 21:9 Their houses are safe(Shalom-H7965) from fear, neither is the rod of God upon them.
Gen 43:27,28 And he asked them of their welfare(Shalom-H7965), and said, Is your father well(Shalom-H7965), the old man of whom ye spake? Is he yet alive? And they answered, Thy servant our father is in good health(Shalom-H7965), he is yet alive. And they bowed down their heads, and made obeisance.
Exo 18:7 And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked each other of their welfare(Shalom-H7965); and they came into the tent.
1Ch 18:10 He sent Hadoram his son to king David, to enquire of his welfare(Shalom-H7965), and to congratulate him, because he had fought against Hadarezer, and smitten him; (for Hadarezer had war with Tou;) and with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass.
Jdg 18:15 And they turned thitherward, and came to the house of the young man the Levite, even unto the house of Micah, and saluted(Shalom-H7965) him.
1Sa 10:4 And they will salute(Shalom-H7965) thee, and give thee two loaves of bread; which thou shalt receive of their hands.
1Sa 25:5 And David sent out ten young men, and David said unto the young men, Get you up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and greet(InquireH7592 + Shalom-H7965) him in my name:
Zec 8:12 For the seed shall be prosperous(Shalom-H7965); the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground shall give her increase, and the heavens shall give their dew; and I will cause the remnant of this people to possess all these things.
Psa 73:3 For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity(Shalom-H7965) of the wicked.
Job 15:21 A dreadful sound is in his ears: in prosperity(Shalom-H7965) the destroyer shall come upon him.
Jer 29:11 For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the LORD, thoughts of peace(Shalom-H7965), and not of evil, to give you an expected end.
Isa 45:7 I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace(Shalom-H7965), and create evil: I the LORD do all these things.
Isa 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace(Shalom-H7965) was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.
Friends – those who wish you well
Jer 20:10 For I heard the defaming of many, fear on every side. Report, say they, and we will report it. All my familiars(Enosh-H582 + Shalom-H7965) watched for my halting, saying, Peradventure he will be enticed, and we shall prevail against him, and we shall take our revenge on him.
Jer 38:22 And, behold, all the women that are left in the king of Judah’s house shall be brought forth to the king of Babylon’s princes, and those women shall say, Thy friends(Eish-H376 + Shalom-H7965) have set thee on, and have prevailed against thee: thy feet are sunk in the mire, and they are turned away back.
Psa 41:9 Yea, mine own familiar friend(Eish-H376 + Shalom-H7965), in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.
How to receive Shalom
The Scriptures connect God’s Word/Law with Shalom often and explain it is the way to receiving Shalom. Nothing else in Scripture is connected to Shalom this way.
Psa 119:165 Great peace(Shalom-H7965) have they which love thy law: and nothing shall offend them.
Isa 48:18 O that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace(Shalom-H7965) been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea:
Pro 3:1,2 My son, forget not my law; but let thine heart keep my commandments: For length of days, and long life, and peace(Shalom-H7965), shall they add to thee.
The Sabbath and Shalom
The Sabbath is connected to the Millennial reign of Yeshua(Jesus’ true name) in the Scriptures. And this is the rest which is mentioned in Hebrews 4:9-11 which all of us will enter. In His Millennial Kingdom Shalom will reign supreme as we see it spoken by the Prophet Isaiah.
Isa 9:7 Of the increase of his government and peace(Shalom-H7965) there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
So the Sabbath in this sense, becomes a day to celebrate that eternal rest and the unending Shalom we would be able to taste someday.
Shalom in the New Testament writings
Although we do not see “Shalom” which is a Hebrew word in the New Testament writings, this is because the surviving New Testament Manuscripts are mostly in Greek. We can be assured that the greetings made in the New Testament used Shalom as we see in the below instances.
Luk 24:36 And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
Joh 20:19 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
Joh 20:21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.
The word Shalom which is loosely translated as peace means so much more in it’s original Hebrew language. It is a word that encapsulates a multitude of positive aspects which is then used to greet one another. It is most likely that Messiah’s instruction to enter a house by saying “Peace be to this House” actually called for the Disciples to invoke this exact word – Shalom! And as God Instructed Moses to teach the sons of Aaron, I bless each of you, that you may receive God’s Shalom, as we see at the end of the Priestly Blessing that was prayed over His people.
Num 6:23-26 Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying, On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, saying unto them, The LORD bless thee, and keep thee: The LORD make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee: The LORD lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace(Shalom-H7965).