Tag Archives: cognate

The Five Fold Ministry. Before or After Christ?

Most Christians believe that the Five Functions or duties noted by Paul in Eph 4:11, commonly known as the “Five-Fold Ministry” came about after Yeshua(Hebrew name of Jesus). Namely, The Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors & Teachers. Even though we do not see many Apostles, the other categories are seen in almost all “Free Churches” as well as ones from traditional backgrounds.

Are these functions new ones? Were these functions there before Messiah’s appearance, even in Old Testament times? Are these Positions of Power or Duties to be carried out as Servants? These are some of the questions we will try to answer today.

Eph 4:11  And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;

In the following explanations of each of these functions, we will also take a closer look at the origins of these titles by looking at the Greek and Hebrew words which the English words derive from. The Strong’s Greek/Hebrew concordance has been used for this purpose, alongside the KJV Translation of the English Bible. 

1. The Apostle
G652 – ἀπόστολος – apostolos – ap-os’-tol-os –
a  messenger, he that is sent

The word “Apostle” in the English language originates from the Greek equivalent “Apostolos” which meant “a messenger” or “one that is sent”. This was not a title specifically made for Christianity, for any messenger would have been called “Apostolos” in Greek. In Joh 13:16, the Greek Word “Apostolos” is translated as “he that is sent” while in 2Cor 8:23 & Philip 2:25 it is translated as “messenger” revealing the true meaning behind the word apostle.

Most people have misunderstood Luke 6:13 to mean that Christ created this new position called “Apostle”. Luk 6:13 And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples: and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles. The true meaning should be that He chose 12 amongst His pupils as the ones who would take His message out into the world.

As the word “Apostle” derives from its Greek cognate “Apostolos”, this word cannot be found in the Old Testament. But this does not mean “messengers” who spread God’s Word were not found in the time before Messiah. Haggai was known as the “messenger” of the LORD (YHVH) centuries before the Apostles in the New Testament(Hag 1:13). The priests who worked in the Temple were also known as “messengers” of God(Mal 2:7). The Scripture say that many “messengers” of God were sent before the Babylonian exile(2Chr 36:16).

2. The Prophet
H5030 – נביא – nâbı̂y’ – naw-bee’ –
a prophet or (generally) inspired man: – prophecy, that prophesy, prophet.
G4396 – προφήτης – prophētēs – prof-ay’-tace
a foreteller (“prophet”); by analogy an inspired speaker; prophet.

Much like the “Apostle” which derived from the Greek word “Apostolos”, the English word “Prophet” also derives from the Greek Word “Prophetes”. The Old Testament had many Prophets. Naming them, I think, is unnecessary. Although, I must mention a few to help you understand what it means to be a Prophet. A Prophet is not only the ones who are called, “Prophet – so and so”. Whoever speaks for God, in the name of God, and represents Him, is a Prophet. It is not a designation. It is merely a duty and a description of what the person does. Abraham (Gen 20:7), David (Acts 2:30), Enoch (Jude 1:14) are but a few characters written in the Scriptures who were never known specifically as “Prophets”, even though they were clearly considered Prophets.

Yeshua was also called a Prophet (John 4:44, Luke 4:24, 13:33, Mat 13:57, Acts 3:22,23, 7:37), and prophesying through the Holy Spirit was done before the Day of Pentecost. Zechariah, Father of John, prophesied being filled with the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:67). A person can also prophesy(Say something that comes from God) without knowing it, like Caiphas, the High Priest who prophesied about Yeshua dying for the whole Nation(John 11:51)

The duty of a Prophet could fall onto a Male or a Female. Miriam, Moses’ sister (Exo 15:20). Deborah, the Judge of Israel (Judg 4:4), Huldah (2Kin 22:14), Philip’s four daughters who prophesied (Acts 21:9) & the widow Anna (Luke 2:36) were all female prophets.

It is also important to note that just like some can Prophesy in Truth and in God, some can prophesy falsely saying it is in God’s name(Jer 23:21, 28:15-17, 29:31, Eze 13:7, 1John 4:1). Not all who Prophesy in Christ’s name, is known by Him (Mat 7:22,23).

3. The Evangelist
G2099
– εὐαγγελιστής – euaggelistēs – yoo-ang-ghel-is-tace’
a preacher of the gospel: – evangelist.
G2098 – εὐαγγέλιον – euaggelion – yoo-ang-ghel’-ee-on –
a good message, gospel.
G2097 – εὐαγγελίζω – euaggelizō – yoo-ang-ghel-id’-zo
to announce good news (“evangelize”) especially the gospel: – declare, bring (declare, show) glad (good) tidings, preach (the gospel).

The above 3 Greek words (“yoo-anghelistace”, “yoo-anghel-eeon”, “yoo-ang-elidzo”) are closely connected to the meaning of “Good news”. The word translated as “Gospel” in our English Translations is G2098 – “yoo-anghel-eeon”. So effectively, the word “Evangelist” means a “Preacher/bringer of Good News”. Matt 11:5 is a good example of this fact. “The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them. The pharse “the gospel preached to them” is translated into English off a single Greek Word, which is G2097 – “yoo-ang-ghel-id’-zo”. This same word is used as “Preach” in the case of John (Luk 3:18), of the 12 Disciples (Luk 9:6, Acts 5:42), of Christ (Luk 4:43, 7:22, 16:16, 20:1), & of all believers (Act 8:4), making them all Evangelists.

The Greek word “yoo-anghel-idzo” cannot be seen in the Old Testament Scriptures which were written in Hebrew. Much like in the case of the word “Apostolos”, this does not mean the function of an Evangelist (who brings/preaches Good News) was not there in Old Testament times. The word “Evangelist” itself can be seen only 3 times in the New Testament (Eph 4:11, Acts 21:8, 2Tim 4:5) even though the function of an Evangelist (Bringing/preaching Good News) “G2097 – “yoo-ang-ghel-id’-zo” can be seen over 50 times.

In the Old Testament Scriptures, we see that Isaiah is known as one who “preaches good news”(Isa 61:1) which was also quoted by Christ in Luk 4:18. The word used by Yeshua in Luke 4:18 for “preach the gospel” is none other than G2097 – “yoo-ang-ghel-id’-zo”.

The author of Hebrews in Heb 4:2 says “For unto us was the “gospel preached”, as well as unto them“. The word which is translated as “gospel preached” here is G2097 – “yoo-ang-ghel-id’-zo”. Who does the author refer to as “them” in this verse? The context reveals that it is the people of Israel in the Old Testament, which means “Evangelizing” happened in the Old Testament times as well. (Please read Heb 4:6 for a similar verse and Chapter 3 for context)

4. The Pastor
G4166
– ποιμήν – poimēn – poy-mane’
a shepherd (literally or figuratively): – shepherd, pastor.
H7462 – רעה – râ‛âh – raw-aw’
to tend a flock, that is, pasture it; pastor, shepherd.

The word “pastor” is connected to shepherd both in the New Testament as well as in the Old. Not only is it connected, it is more often than not, translated as “Shepherd” throughout the Bible. In fact, the English word “pastor” is seen only in Eph 4:11 while the Greek word that it is translated from (G4166 – poy-mane), is seen 18 times in the New Testament, translated as “shepherd” into English 17 out of 18 times(Mat 9:36, 25:32, 26:31, Mar 6:34, 14:27, Luk 2:8,15,18,20, Joh 10:2,11,12,14,16, Heb 13:20, 1Pe 2:25)

The English translation of the Old Testament contains the word “pastor” many more times (Jer 2:8, 3:15, 10:21, 12:10, 17:16, 22:22, 23:1,2) than the New Testament which contains it only once(Eph 4:11). But similar to the New Testament Translation of the word “Pastor”, the actual meaning of the Hebrew word(H7462 – raw-aw) which is translated in these instances is “shepherd”. The word “shepherd” itself is used in the capacity of “leader” in the Old Testament (Isa 56:11, 63:11). Even though “G4166 – poy-mane” & “H7462 – raw-aw” are translated as “pastor” in some places and “shepherd” in others, the true meaning is “shepherd” (a leader of a flock).

5. The Teacher
G1320 – διδάσκαλος – didaskalos – did-as’-kal-os –
an instructor (generally or specifically): – master, teacher.

The Greek word which is translated as “teacher” in Eph 4:11, is in most places translated as “Master” (mosty pertaining to Yeshua). The true meaning of the word is instructor/teacher, as the Greek word “G1320 – didaskalos” derives from the word “G1321 – didasko” which means “to teach”.

The Old Testament Scriptures also prove that there were many teachers appointed by God before the time of Christ. Moses was a teacher appointed by God (Exo 24:12, Deut 4:5). There were appointed people who went around the land of Israel teaching God’s Word (2Chr 17:8-10). The tribe of Levi were instructors of God’s Word and His ways (Deut 17:9-11, 24:8, 33:8-10, 2Chr 30:22, 35:3). The priests (Aaron’s sons) were mainly appointed to teach God’s people (Lev 10:8-11, 2Chr 15:3, 2Kin 12:2). Samuel who was a judge of Israel was also a teacher (1Sam 12:23). Nehemiah and Ezra were also teachers (Neh 8:9) along with a host of others (Neh 8:7). It was a Commandment of God to teach everyone in Israel, man, woman & child (Deut 31:11-13).

Positions or Duties? Leaders or Servants?
In some Christian congregations today, being an Apostle, Prophet, Evangelist, Pastor or Teacher carries a sense of power and hierarchy. These have become titles and designations rather than functions in the body of believers. It is important to respect everyone, from a fellow believer to one who is appointed to lead/serve. But sad to say, this respect has been misused, and at times, changed into positions of power.

Christ is the embodiment of all the 5 functions mentioned in Eph 4:11.
He was an Apostle (“one that is sent”) sent by Our Heavenly Father. (Joh 5:30, 6:39, 8:42, 17:8)
He was a Prophet (“one who represents & speaks for God”). (Mat 13:57,Luk 13:33, Joh 6:14, 7:40
He was an Evangelist (“one who preaches Good News”). (Matt 11:4,5, Luk 4:18, 8:1, 20:1)
He was a Pastor (“Shepherd”). (Matt 25:32, 26:31, Joh 10:11,14, Heb 13:20, 1Pet 2:25)
He was a Teacher (“one who teaches God’s Word”). (Mat 10:24,25, 22:16, Joh 1:38, 3:2, 13:13)

wash feetEven though He was the epitome of Righteousness and God’s image, what did He say to His Disciples under Him? What was the example He left with His followers who were to become leaders in the body of believers?

Joh 13:14,15  If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another’s feet. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.
Mat 20:26  But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
Luk 22:25-27  And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors. But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve. For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.

Whoever is appointed to serve, whether he/she be an Apostle, Prophet, Evangelist, Pastor or Teacher, they are all servants. And according to the example left to us by Yeshua, whoever is a leader, is in fact a servant who is humble enough to wash the feet of whoever is put under his/her authority.

Conclusion
The “Five fold Ministry” is thought by many to have been instituted after Yeshua, even though there are clear indications that all of these functions existed well before New Testament times. Most of these misunderstandings have come about because of the English translations we read. As seen in the evidence above, even though most of these cognate words (English words that have derived straight from the Greek counterparts – eg. Apostle & Apostolos, Evangelist & Yooanghelistace) cannot be seen in the Hebrew Old Testament Scriptures (because they derive from Greek), it does not necessarily mean that the function did not exist in Old Testament times.

Not only were all of these functions or services there in the Old Testament era, they were part and parcel of God’s Word. Accordingly Christ Himself embodied all of these functions, acting as a servant rather than one who is served, leaving His Church an example to follow. “whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant”.

Is Baptism a New Testament ritual?

Reading the Gospels, I was always under the impression that Baptism started with John the Baptist. Was John the inventor of Baptism? Or did Baptism originate before him? Where did Baptism really come from? What is the true meaning and purpose of it? These are some of the questions I had myself.

The issue this study will try to address mainly, is that Baptism did not suddenly appear after John and Yeshua, but that it existed and has it’s roots in the Old Testament Scriptures.

It is a fact that the word “Baptism” does not appear in the Old Testament Scriptures. It seems to be an alien ritual that John suddenly starts out of nowhere, and people take part of, in the thousands(Mat 3:5,6). Even the Pharisees and Sadducees who were vehemently opposing Yeshua, wanted to take part in it(Mat 3:7).

An interesting point to ponder on, is in John 1:25. Here some asked him “Then why are you baptizing, if you are neither the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”(Joh 1:25). If Baptism was a completely new idea, why did they ask why John is Baptizing, instead of what is this thing called the “Baptism” that you are doing?

————————————————–The sum of this study——————————————————
Since this study delves deep into the Greek words written in the original manuscripts, I have compiled a summary of sorts for everyone who would find the evidence below a bit too advanced or time consuming.

The English word “Baptism” is a “Cognate” word. What this means is, that the English word “Baptism” comes from a similar sounding word from Greek, which is “Baptiszo”, which originally means “to make fully wet, whelmed or wash”. The reason we do not find Baptism in the English translation of the Old Testament, is a simple one; The English translations that we have of the Old Testament, was translated from Hebrew, while the New Testament was translated from Greek.

Even though 2000 years later, we see the English cognate word “Baptism” as a “ritual” that was started by John and Yeshua, the Greek word “Baptiszo” simply meant “to make fully wet, fully whelmed or wash”.

Further to this, “Baptism” is one of the main 3 acts performed by whomever wants to become a proselyte of Judaism. The Jewish Baptism (also called immersion), is identical to the “Baptism” recorded in the New Testament. And this act of Jewish Baptism predates John, Yeshua and the Christian Baptism. (Refer, Ablution, Jewish Baptism, Jewish proselyte baptism).

The act of Baptism, is believed to originate from the commandment God gave to His people before the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:10). This act can be seen further in Leviticus 8:6, where Aaron and his sons were washed when they were ordained as priests to minister in the holy tabernacle.

Baptism is an important step in the life of anyone who believes in Yeshua. It depicts how we are dead to our old sinful self, and is born in Christ’s image (Rom 6:3,4). Baptism cannot save anyone, in the same way circumcision cannot save anyone. Both are outward acts that show an inward change. The person with the repentant heart alone will be saved through God’s grace. I am in no way, saying that Baptism is of no use. It is an ordinance made by Messiah to proclaim to the world, what has happened inside of a person who gets baptized in his name. In other words, you are showcasing the inner change to the world by the act of immersing yourself in a body of water, which is “Baptism”.

Just because we start seeing the English word “Baptism” in the Gospels first, does not mean that the act of Baptism wasn’t there before John or the Gospels. Getting caught in a word has blinded us to the reality of Baptism or Immersion in Water, as an act of re-birth and purification which was there, long before Christianity. This has in turn, led to the erroneous idea that Yeshua, our saviour introduced a complete set of new rules and regulations, and that baptism was also a new law that came with the New Covenant.
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Study of Greek words in the Original Manuscripts using the Strong’s Concordance
Now let’s look at the 3 main Greek Words used in connection with the idea of Baptism in the Original Greek Manuscripts. I have showcased all of these words (even though 2 of them originate from the first word) and their corresponding translations to English, as well as highlight key verses for discussion and shedding insight into the act of Baptism.

1) G907 – βαπτίζω – baptizō – bap-tid’-zo – From a derivative of G911; to make whelmed (that is, fully wet); used only (in the New Testament) of ceremonial ablution, especially (technically) of the ordinance of Christian baptism: – baptize, wash.

G907 is translated as “Baptize”, “Baptized”, “Baptizest”, “Baptizing”, “Baptizeth” in  – Mat_3:6; Mat_3:11; Mat_3:13; Mat_3:14; Mat_3:16; Mat_20:22; Mat_20:23; Mat_28:19; Mar_1:4; Mar_1:5; Mar_1:8; Mar_1:9; Mar_10:38; Mar_10:39; Mar_16:16; Luk_3:7; Luk_3:12; Luk_3:16; Luk_3:21; Luk_7:29; Luk_7:30; Luk_12:50; Joh_1:25; Joh_1:26; Joh_1:28; Joh_1:31; Joh_1:33; Joh_3:22; Joh_3:23; Joh_3:26; Joh_4:1; Joh_4:2; Joh_10:40; Act_1:5; Act_2:38; Act_2:41; Act_8:12; Act_8:13; Act_8:16; Act_8:36; Act_8:38; Act_9:18; Act_10:47; Act_10:48; Act_11:16; Act_16:15; Act_16:33; Act_18:8; Act_19:3; Act_19:4; Act_19:5; Act_22:16; Rom_6:3; 1Co_1:13; 1Co_1:14; 1Co_1:15; 1Co_1:16; 1Co_1:17; 1Co_10:2; 1Co_12:13; 1Co_15:29; Gal_3:27;

It is also translated as “wash” in Mar 7:4 and as “washed” in Luk 11:38.
Mar 7:4  And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.
Luk 11:38  And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed before dinner.
These verses should ideally read as given below:-
Mar 7:4  And when they come from the market, except they baptize, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.
Luk 11:38  And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first baptized before dinner.

This is clear proof to the fact that the Greek Word “G907 – βαπτίζω – baptizō – bap-tid’-zo” clearly meant “wash”. Since this Greek word has been translated to “Baptism” in English, which is a “Cognate” word, (meaning a similar sounding word which has originated from it’s Greek counterpart) it has caused people to think that the act of “Baptism” is a completely new idea only found in the New Testament. The fact is, that this word originally meant “wash” or “immerse” in the Greek.


2) G908 – βάπτισμα – baptisma – bap’-tis-mah
– From G907; baptism (technically or figuratively): – baptism.

G908 is also translated as “Baptism” in Mat_3:7; Mat_20:22; Mat_20:23; Mat_21:25; Mar_1:4; Mar_10:38; Mar_10:39; Mar_11:30; Luk_3:3; Luk_7:29; Luk_12:50; Luk_20:4; Act_1:22; Act_10:37; Act_13:24; Act_18:25; Act_19:3; Act_19:4; Rom_6:4; Eph_4:5; Col_2:12; 1Pe_3:21;

G908 – baptisma originates from G907 baptizō


3) G909 – βαπτισμός – baptismos – bap-tis-mos’
– From G907; ablution (ceremonially or Christian): – baptism, washing.
Mar 7:4  And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.
Mar 7:8  For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.
Heb 6:2  Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.
Heb 9:10  Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation.

Just like G908 – baptisma, G909 – baptismos also originates from G907 baptizō. This word which is translated as “baptisms” in He 6:2, is translated as “washing/s” in Mar 7:4, 7:8 & Heb 9:10. This further proves the fact of “Baptizo/Baptism” being the equivalent of “Wash”.

Baptism in Judaism predating John and Messiah
Any and everyone who wants to become a proselyte of Judaism has to go through 3 main acts over and above studying. The 3 acts are “Circumcision”, “Baptism” and offering of “Sacrifice”. In today’s context, as the Temple in Jerusalem is no more, they have to accomplish the first 2. It has been so, even before John & Yeshua according to historical documents.  And this Jewish Baptism (also called immersion), is identical to the “Baptism” recorded in the New Testament. (Refer, Ablution, Jewish Baptism, Jewish proselyte baptism). Furthermore, they even believe that the person who goes through “Baptism” is like a newborn child, which is very close to the idea of born-again, used by Christians.

“Baptism”(G907 – baptizō ) found in Septuagint
The “Septuagint“, which is a Greek Translation of the Hebrew Old Testament Scriptures, contains G907 – baptizō  in 2 Kin 5:14.
2Ki 5:14  Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.

In this verse Naaman the Syrian, who had a skin disease washed/immersed himself 3 times in the Jordan as per Elisha’s instructions. It is translated as “dipped” in our English Bibles, though the Greek scholars who translated the Hebrew to Greek for the Septuagint, 2 centuries before Yeshua, used G907 – baptizō  in this place. This is a clear indication, that G907 – baptizō  meant to “wash/immerse oneself”. And that the word itself was there 2 centuries before Yeshua, even though the English word “Baptism” came to be, only much later in time.
Origins of Baptism or Ritual Washing/Immersion
In Exodus 19:10, God tells Moses to tell the people to wash their clothes in preparation of hearing God speak and receiving His Commandments. This is the first instance there is any mention of a ritual of washing.

Leviticus 8:6 records that Aaron and his sons were washed with water when they were ordained as priests to minister in the holy tabernacle, according to God’s Command. Again, in Leviticus 16:4, God commands Aaron to wash himself before he ministered in the Holy of Holies.

The first Temple in Jerusalem built by Solomon had a large circular pool of water, which was called the “Sea of Solomon”. This was used by the priests for cleansing/washing and is mentioned in 1Kings 7:23 and 2Chron 4:2.

Baptising or Washing/Immersing ourselves today
Baptism in itself is only an act. It is the heart of the person that gets Baptised/Immersed/Washed that matters. Baptism cannot save anyone, in the same way circumcision cannot save anyone. Both are outward acts that show an inward change. The person with the repentant heart alone will be saved through God’s grace. Baptism is an important step in the life of anyone who believes in Yeshua. It depicts how we are dead to our old sinful self and is born in Christ’s image (Rom 6:3,4). It is an ordinance made by Messiah to proclaim to the world, what has happened inside of a person who gets baptized in his name. In other words, you are showcasing the inner change to the world by the act of immersing yourself in a body of water, which is “Baptism”.

Concluding words
A person can very well say, that “Baptism” is first seen in the Gospels. This has led to the idea that Yeshua, our saviour introduced a new set of rules and regulations, and that baptism was also a new law that came with the New Covenant.

Just because we start seeing the English word “Baptism” in the Gospels first, does not mean that the “act of Baptism” was started by John in the Gospels. As we have seen above, “Baptism”, a cognate word, originating from it’s Greek counterpart literally means “immerse/wash”.  And washing as an act of renewal and cleansing has been there from Old Testament times.

Finally, I hope this article adequately shows you that the act of “Baptism” was not created by John or Yeshua, and that it is not something that anyone can use to separate the Old Testament from the New. If at all, this act brings the Old Testament Scriptures closer to the Gospels and epistles, of the New.