Learning about YHVH‘s Appointed times was the turning point in my life, in which I saw a pattern that God had laid out. Seeing that Christ died on “Passover“, being buried at the beginning of the “Week of Unleavened Bread“, Resurrecting on “Firstfruits” and the Disciples receiving the Holy Spirit on “Pentecost” (which is another of God’s Feast days from Lev 23) started a curiosity in me, which has fueled my passion of study and research. The Icing on the cake was that there were more feast days which were yet to be realised, but of which we had all heard in some sermon or bible study. The Feast of “Trumpets” signified His 2nd Coming, The “Day of Atonement” signified judgement and “Tabernacles” signified His 1000 year reign. “I was blown away”. Putting all of this together with Scripture to back it up, I hope the below Graphical Study Board will help you see God’s Plan and His Word in new Light. Click on below image for enlarged view.
For the past few years, as I learned about God’s Feast Days/ Appointed Times, it has always been a struggle to keep track of His Holy Days. As the world works on the Gregorian Calendar it is impractical to discard it altogether. But on the other hand, keeping track of God’s Calendar timings is important to me now, more than ever. With all the technology in the world, keeping it noted down in your phone or computer becomes the norm – although there’s nothing like a printed version you can stick on a wall or fridge. After looking around for quite some time, I decided on creating such a calendar myself this year, so that whoever needs it, is able to simply download and print it out; or keep it in their computer for reference. Download for free using link at bottom of page. Click the image below for an enlarged preview.
Now I will be the first to admit that the highlighted days are only approximations, and can change drastically depending on the New Moon Sightings and the Aviv Search. I am well aware that there are differing opinions on how the Biblical Calendar is interpreted – and this is meant to be a helpful guide and something that brings us together rather than cause division. I hope that it will also be helpful to all of you with your Sabbath studies as well.
(6.77MB PDF FILE)
♦ 12 Month Gregorian Calendar
♦ Calendar Week with Sabbath as 7th day
♦ Weekly Torah Portions with additional reading of Prophets and Gospels
♦ New Moon Days/Months marked (maybe off by 1 day – please correct if so)
♦ Week of Unleavened Bread*
♦ Pentecost with 50 day count*
♦ Week of Tabernacles with 8th Day*
♦ Special/High Sabbaths
♦ Condensed studies on the Biblical Calendar and other topics
Please note that Purim, Chanukkah and other traditional holy days are not marked
* These could be off by a day or a whole month according to moon sightings and the aviv search
♦ Simply download and print it on your home printer or at a 3rd party vendor such as Snapfish, Kodak Gallery, Walgreen, Walmart, Target, CVS, etc.
♦ Pages are designed to be printed on A3 white paper, but can be fitted onto A4 Paper using print properties, if needed.
♦ Let me know if you need any further help
Be a blessing to everyone around you, this coming year!
Some believe that the last meal which Christ shared with His disciples, is a “Passover meal”. There are valid reasons for this connection to have been made. In this short study, it will be our aim to check whether the “last supper” was a “Passover meal” or not. If it is, indeed a “Passover Meal”, then the communion taken by millions of Christians worldwide every week, signifies this meal. If it was Christ’s last meal that He taught to be kept as a remembrance, it makes a significant difference in how we view the Last Supper of our Lord.
This post is broken down into these parts
1. What we know about the Biblical Passover Commandment
2. Discrepancies in the Gospels? Or a simple misunderstanding?
3. Was the Last Supper a Passover Seder?
4. Was Christ partaking in a Passover meal?
1. What we know about the Biblical Passover Commandment
1. The Passover meal is consumed at the end of the Passover day, at sunset, when the 15th day is starting, and has to be consumed before the next sunrise(Exo 12:8-10). Effectively, it is consumed on the 1st day of Unleavened Bread before the coming dawn. The Passover day would be on the 14th day of the 1st Biblical month, and does not align in anyway to the current Gregorian calendar which is used by everyone today.
2. The meal itself consists of 3 things, namely, a) Lamb roasted in fire b) Bitter Herbs & c) Unleavened Bread(Exo 12:8).
3. The Passover Lamb was killed on the 14th Day of the 1st Biblical Month, which is the Passover Day, in the evening(Exo 12:6)
4. The Passover Lambs were to be sacrificed at the Temple in Jerusalem, and nowhere else(Deut 16:1-7).
5. This was a commandment which was to be kept forever(Exo 12:24).
2. Discrepancies in the Gospels? Or a simple misunderstanding?
At first sight, the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark & Luke) seem to be in disagreement with John’s Gospel on whether the Last Supper was a Passover meal or not. While Matthew, Mark & Luke seem to be saying that Christ and His disciples were having a Passover Meal, John witnesses that Yeshua(Jesus’ true name) was crucified on the Day of Passover. If the Synoptic Gospels are correct, and they were having the Passover Meal, the crucifixion would have happened on the day preceding Passover, which is the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread – A High/Special Sabbath day(Lev 23:6,7, Joh 19:31). My belief is that all of the Gospel accounts are correct, and that there are no discrepancies between them. Out of the 3 possibilities that arise from the Gospel accounts, only one could be correct – and all 4 gospels need to agree, while disproving the other 2 possibilities. For a timeline of the time from the Last Supper to Christ’s Death, please go here.
The 3 possibilities we are left with are:
A) The Last Supper was a Passover Meal & Christ died on the eve of the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread
B) The Last Supper was not a Passover Meal & Christ died on the eve of the day of Passover
C) The Last Supper was a Passover Meal which Christ & His disciples consumed a day earlier, and Christ died on the eve of the day of Passover
Verses that are in need of inspection – Gospel of Matthew
Mat 26:4,5 And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.
Mat 26:17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?
Mat 27:15 Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would.
Mat 27:62 Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate,
Verses that are in need of inspection – Gospel of Mark
Mar 14:1,2 After two days was the feast of the passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him by craft, and put him to death. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar of the people.
Mar 14:12-16 And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed the passover, his disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and prepare that thou mayest eat the passover? And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water: follow him. And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? And he will shew you a large upper room furnished and prepared: there make ready for us. And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
Mar 15:6 Now at that feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
Mar 15:42 And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath,
Verses that are in need of inspection – Gospel of Luke
Luk 22:7-13 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed. And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare? And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in. And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready. And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
Luk 22:15,16 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
Luk 23:16,17 I will therefore chastise him, and release him. (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.)
Luk 23:54 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.
Verses that are in need of inspection – Gospel of John
Joh 13:1,2 Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, to betray him;
Joh 13:27-29 And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him. For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor.
Joh 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.
Joh 18:39 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
Joh 19:13,14 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!
Joh 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
Joh 19:42 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews’ preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.
Out of the above verses, John is very clear that the “Last Supper” happened at the start of the Day of Passover. The Passover lambs would be killed at the Temple of Jerusalem on the following day from Noon till Evening, and the meal would be taken afterwards at Sundown as it ushered in the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread.
But why do the Synoptic Gospels give a different story. Or do they? According to Matthew, Mark and Luke – the disciples came to Yeshua and asked about the Passover meal, on the 1st day of Unleavened Bread. At first sight, a person who knows about the Passover may become quite confused, as it seems to be implying the Passover was killed on the 1st day of Unleavened Bread. It would be too late to prepare for a Passover meal on the first day of the feast of unleavened bread, as the Passover was eaten between Sunset and Dawn(refer above graphic). Also it seems to be in direct conflict with their own words where they mention the day of Christ’s crucifixion as “the Day of Preparation”(Mat 27:62, Mar 15:42, Luk 23:54) which was another name for the Day of Passover – as that was when they prepared for the Passover. These verses from the Synoptic Gospels tend to agree with John’s words in 19:14,31&42 as well.
There is a valid reason why the Passover and the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread seem to be mixed up in the Synoptic Gospels. In the 1st Century AD, The Passover & the Week of Unleavened Bread were not counted as 2 different feasts but one. Josephus, the famous 1st Century Historian regarded the feast to last 8 days beginning on the 14th (Antiq II, 15.1). So, when the Synoptic Gospels speak of the 1st Day of Unleavened Bread, it is in fact speaking of the Passover – the Day of Preparation – which all 4 Gospels agree to in Mat 27:62, Mar 15:42, Luk 23:54, Joh19:14,31&42.
We can rule out a crucifixion and death on the day after Passover (1st Day of Unleavened Bread) because of the above reasons. Furthermore, Mat 26:4,5 & Mar 14:2 witnesses that the Chief Priests & Scribes wanted to refrain from putting Yeshua to death on the Feast (The 1st Day of Unleavened Bread was a High/Special Sabbath day where courts would have not operated). Also, we see that the Synoptic Gospels witness that Pilate released a prisoner on the Feast Day(Mat 27:15, Mar 15:6, Luk 23:16,17) which agrees with Joh 18:39 to be the Passover.
3. Was the Last Supper a Passover Seder?
But why then does Christ say “With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer” as seen in Luke’s Gospel? Some conclude that Yeshua had the Passover a day before the prescribed time, because of such verses.
Some of the many similarities that are spoken of, between the Passover Meal and the Last Supper are as follows:
(1) The Last Supper took place in Jerusalem
(2) Held in a room made available to pilgrims for that purpose
(3) The meal was held during the night
(4) Christ celebrated the meal with his “family” of disciples
(5) They were reclining while they ate
(6) Bread was broken during the meal
(7) Wine was consumed
(8) A hymn was sung
(9) The symbolic significance of the meal was discussed
Of the above mentioned similarities, most could be part of any meal. The fact remains that the Last Supper was not taken on the eve of Passover, as we have already tested. The eve of Passover, leading to the 1st day of Unleavened Bread, was the time when the Passover meal was commanded to be consumed(Ex 12:2,6, Lev 23:5, Num 9:3). Messiah was crucified on the day of Passover(John 18:28, 19:14) and He died on the evening of the same day (Mat 27:46-50, Mar 15:33-37, Luk 23:44-46). The Last Supper was eaten, the evening before Passover eve, at the start of the Day of Passover. The Biblical Passover meal consisted of Lamb killed at the Temple in Jerusalem on the Day of Passover, Bitter Herbs & Unleavened Bread. None of which are mentioned by the Gospel writers. Even the Bread mentioned by authors of the Synoptic Gospels is regular bread(G740-Artos) and not “unleavened bread”(G106-Azumos). Furthermore, Christ and His disciples could not have been partaking of a seder similar to a Passover meal today, as some believe – reason being, the Passover Seder was created after the destruction of the Temple in 70AD by the Rabbis, and was not in use before.
4. Was Christ partaking in a Passover meal?
The question then remains, why did Yeshua speak of a Passover Meal? A little known fact about the evening before the Passover (evening that starts the 14th of the 1st Biblical Month) is that the Jews in the 1st Century, and even today celebrate the start of the Passover with a meal. Evidence of this tradition can be seen in The Jerusalem Talmud (Jer. Pes. 27d) reckoned that “the Pesach (Passover) of that time to actually begin on the 14th”. The Foundation Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum, edited by Safrai, Stern, Flusser and Van Unnik, produced the work entitled “The Jewish People of the First Century” which states of the evening before Passover (evening which starts the 14th of Abib/Nisan) “The eve itself was a sort of feast because the paschal sacrifice was offered that afternoon” (Volume 2, page 809). The Last Supper was most probably a Pre-Passover Meal that was shared in anticipation of the Passover ahead.
Luk 22:15,16 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
As we see in Luke’s testimony, this Pre-Passover meal was the closest Christ would be to sharing a Passover meal with His disciples. He had desired to eat the Passover together with His disciples before He suffered, but knew that He would not be alive the next evening. He wishes to share this missed Passover Meal with them, when He returns again and tells them He would not partake of it till then. Looking at this verse in this sense aligns with all of the other verses, as the Last Supper is clearly not a Passover Meal, but a Pre-Passover meal.
The Last Supper was a meal shared at the beginning of the 14th Day of the 1st Month of the Biblical Year. Although the Synoptic Gospels and John’s Gospel seem to be contradicting each other, they all agree that Christ died on the Passover and the Last Supper was held the night before. The Last Supper may seem like a Passover seder, but there isn’t enough evidence to prove the likeness of this theory. The Last Supper would have most probably been a Pre-Passover meal shared in celebration of the ushering in of the Passover day, and the upcoming Sacrifice, through which we came out of slavery to Sin, just as the Israelites came out of slavery to Egypt.
The day of Pentecost, celebrated throughout most Christian Congregations, is thought to have started with the giving of the Holy Spirit to the disciples gathered at the Upper Room. But what if Pentecost started almost 1500 years before? As Christians who were brought up being taught that Pentecost started in the upper Room, this may come as a shock. But the truth is that Pentecost had been celebrated for almost 1500 years before Christ, being instituted by YHVH at the Mount of Sinai.
As Christians, we need to become more like the “noble Bereans” (Acts 17:10,11) who searched the Scriptures to check what was told to them were true or not. So let us dig into the Scriptures for the evidence of a Pre-Christ Pentecost.
What does the word “Pentecost” mean?
The English word “Pentecost” is a direct transliteration of the Greek word “Pentekoste” and means “fiftieth” or more specifically “the fiftieth day” in Greek. Even though the meaning has been lost in our English translations of the Bible, a quick look at a dictionary/lexicon reveals the real meaning.
Thayer’s Greek Lexicon
G4005 – πεντηκοστή – pentēkoste – Pentecost = “the fiftieth day”
1) the second of the three great Jewish feasts, celebrated at Jerusalem yearly, the seventh week after the Passover, in grateful recognition of the completed harvest.
Pentecost in the New Testament writings
There are 3 instances where the above word “G4005 – Pentekoste” appears in the New Testament. In the below verses, the 1st instance speaks of the disciple being gathered to the upper room when the “fiftieth day” had fully come. The second instance is of Paul who determines to go to Jerusalem by the “fiftieth day”. And the 3rd instance is of Paul’s words to the Ephesians explaining how he will stay at Ephesus until the “fiftieth day”.
And when the day of Pentecost(Pentekoste – the fiftieth day) was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. (Act 2:1)
For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, because he would not spend the time in Asia: for he hasted, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem the day of Pentecost(Pentekoste – the fiftieth day). (Act 20:16)
But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost(Pentekoste – the fiftieth day). (1Co 16:8)
Why was this day called “The Fiftieth Day”?
If it was called the Fiftieth Day, there would have had to be a reason for it. Was it a Fiftieth day from a specific event? To know the answer, we must examine the Old Testament Scriptures, as well as the clues left for us in the New Testament.
A. The Fiftieth Day is instituted at Sinai
To understand what “Pentecost/the fiftieth day” really means, we must look at its origins, in the Old Testament.
Lev 23:15,16 And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete:
Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD. Lev 23:21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame day, that it may be an holy convocation unto you: ye shall do no servile work therein: it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
The above reference is part of the commandment given by God at Sinai regarding the “Feasts/Appointments of God” recorded in Leviticus, and speaks of the Appointment which comes 50 days from the day of “Firstfruits” which is the day after the Sabbath following “Passover“. (To know detailed information on this topic, please read this post). In it God commands to count “Seven Sabbaths” (Seven Weeks) from the day the firstfruit (sheaf of the wave offering) was brought to the temple – and the day after the Seventh Sabbath would be considered, a day of Assembly, where no monetary work would be done and would be proclaimed each year, forever.
Generally known as the Feast of Weeks in the Scriptures, it was a countdown of Seven Weeks/Sabbaths leading to 50 days. (7days x 7 +1 = 50days)
Exo 34:22 And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year’s end.
Deu 16:10 And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks unto the LORD thy God with a tribute of a freewill offering of thine hand, which thou shalt give unto the LORD thy God, according as the LORD thy God hath blessed thee:
2Ch 8:13 Even after a certain rate every day, offering according to the commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts, three times in the year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles.
It was also necessary for all males to come to Jerusalem for this day/event.
Deu 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the LORD empty:
B. Clues left in the Book of Acts by Luke, regarding the “Fiftieth day”
1. The completion of 50 days
In Acts 2:1, Luke specifically mentions the “completion of 50 days” saying “when the day of Pentecost was fully come“. This shows how the Disciple gathered in the upper room, as Pentecost/Fifty Days were completed.
2. A multitude of Jews living outside Judea and Jerusalem had gathered to Jerusalem
In Acts 2:5, Luke specifies that devout men from every nation under heaven had gathered to Jerusalem. Why were such a crowd gathered to Jerusalem at the time the disciples were in the upper room? It was no coincidence. God had specified that all males of His people must come to Jerusalem for the “Feast of Weeks”/”Fifty Days” or better known as “Pentecost” in the New Testament (Deut 16:16, Exo 23:14-17, 34:22,23).
3. Paul wanted to be in Jerusalem for Pentecost/The fiftieth day
As a devout Jew who was obedient to God’s Law, it is no surprise that Paul determined to be in Jerusalem for Pentecost(Act 20:16), as it was part of God’s Law to be present in Jerusalem at Pentecost. Contrary to popular belief, Paul was obedient to Mosaic Law as per James(Act 21:18-24) & Paul’s(Act 24:14) own testimony. He was earnest to keep the feast days in Jerusalem according to Acts 18:21
4. A specified time span and a command not to leave Jerusalem
The disciples themselves were ordered by Yeshua (Jesus’ true name) not to leave Jerusalem(Acts 1:4) and Luke even specifies the proximity to the Fiftieth day by recording that Messiah was seen by the disciples for Forty days after His Resurrection(Acts 1:3). As Yeshua arose on the day of FirstFruits – and the counting of 50 days starts on Firstfruits, this meant that there were 10 days remaining to the feast of Pentecost.
Pentecost was instituted at Sinai by God, 1500 years before the giving of the gifts of the Holy Spirit on the Upper Room. Pentecost, a Greek word turned into English hides the meaning of “Fifty days” behind it, which was the counting of fifty days according to the Law of God. Modern Christianity might not even know it, but they are keeping God’s Law of the “Fiftieth Day” when they meet together on Pentecost. How wonderful would it be if all Christians knew and understood that God’s Commandments, His Word endures forever without change – without a single jot or tittle being done away. And that His Feasts/Appointed Days do foreshadow the first and second coming of Messiah Yeshua. And that Pentecost, which was instituted in the Old Testament is part of these 7 appointed days set forth by God Himself.
The death of Christ is celebrated all over the world on “Good Friday” by millions of Christians in different denominations. But few question the origins of “Good Friday”, even if it is not mentioned in the Bible. Not only does it not contain “Good Friday”, the Gospels do not even speak of a Friday Crucifixion. But why then, do Christian congregations around the world teach/celebrate a “Friday” Crucifixion? In today’s study, we will delve into this question and find answers with the help of “the Sign of Jonah” mentioned by Christ several times in the Gospel accounts.
The only thing mentioned throughout the Gospels without any disagreements, is that Yeshua (Jesus’ true name) died on the day known as Passover (John 18:28, 19:14, Mat 27:46-50, Mar 15:33-37, Luk 23:44-46). So where did the idea of a Friday Crucifixion arise from? Let’s review the information given by the writers of the Gospels.
- Yeshua died on the Evening of the Passover. (John 18:28, 19:14)
- Yeshua died around the 9th Hour of the Passover day (3pm in Modern day time)
(Mat 27:46-50, Mar 15:33-37, Luk 23:44-46)
- Yeshua died on an evening before the Sabbath, or as it was drawing towards the Sabbath (Joh 19:31, Mar 15:42,43, Luk 23:52-54). The Sabbath started at sundown(Lev 23:32)
- Yeshua rose after the Sabbath and before dawn on the 1st day (Mt 28:1-6, Mar 16:2-4, Luke 24:1-3, Joh 20:1,2)
So according to the above biblical evidence, Yeshua died before the Sabbath and rose after the Sabbath. The biblical Sabbath Day coincides with the day which is presently known as Saturday. Using the above, Christian Denominations around the world believed, and still believe in the following hypothesis (Please note that the following will be disproved using Scripture subsequently)
2. Today’s belief of the majority:
Crucifixion and death on Passover = (Friday Eve)
In the Tomb on Sabbath Day = (Saturday)
Resurrection = (Sunday before dawn)
This is the reason all Christian Denominations regard “Friday” as the day of Crucifixion & “Sunday” as the day of “Resurrection”. But this theory has a major flaw in it.
3. A questionable hypothesis
Mat 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
As per above text from the Gospels Christ alluded that the story of Jonah was prophetically connected to Him, and that He would be in the heart of the earth for 3 days and 3 nights. According to the theory highlighted in Point number 2, which is accepted by millions of Christians worldwide, where is the 3 days and 3 nights? Some count Friday, Saturday & Sunday as the 3 days & 3 nights, although it is erroneous as Christ would have been dead for a maximum of 36 hours according to the above theory.
4. The Sign of Jonah & the witness of Yeshua
In the time of His ministry, Yeshua spoke of His death and resurrection multiple times. One of the signs He provided out of the Scriptures was of the “Sign of Jonah”.
Mat 12:38-40 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee. But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
Mat 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.
Luk 11:29 And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.
a. What was the “Sign of Jonah?”
Jon 1:17 Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.
As we see in the book of Jonah, the prophet was in fact there in the belly of the great fish for three days and three nights. And Messiah directly connected this as a sign of His own death and resurrection. If you have read the prayer that Jonah made inside the belly of the fish, this connection become much more apparent. Jonah’s prayer was a prophetic prayer about the Messiah, just as it was about himself.
Jonah Chapter 2 Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish’s belly, And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the LORD, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice. For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me. Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple. The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head. I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; the earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O LORD my God. When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple. They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy.
But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD. And the LORD spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.
You could read this prayer, and almost see that it is a prayer made by Yeshua to the Father. He cries because of His affliction, and sees that God has heard Him. Out of the belly of the Grave (translated as Hell) God hears His cry. Even though it was the Father’s will that Yeshua be cast down into the deep in the midst of the seas of people, and was cast out of sight as sin enveloped him, and death took His body – YHVH – God Almighty brought Him up once again, giving life to what was doomed to corruption. He indeed sacrificed Himself with thanksgiving – He payed which He had vowed to do. And salvation (Yeshua in Hebrew) was proved to be of God through Him. And as per God’s command, the earth spewed out Yeshua to the land of the living – now glorified.
The “Sign of Jonah” was truly a Messianic sign in the Scriptures, awaiting completion – brought to pass through Yeshua’s Death & Resurrection.
b. Yeshua’s witness about the three days, in the Gospels
Joh 2:19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.
Mat 27:63 Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again.
Mar 14:58 We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.
Mat 26:61 And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days.
Mar 15:29,30 And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, Save thyself, and come down from the cross.
Mat 27:40 And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.
Mar 8:31 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
1Co 15:3,4 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
We see the 3 days being mentioned over and over again in the Gospels. But the most important verse that contains “3 days” is 1Cor 15:3,4 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
In it Paul mentions the 3 days according to the “Scriptures” or Old Testament as we call it today. But where is such a prophecy contained anywhere in the Old Testament? The only place where the 3 days is mentioned is in Jonah 1:17 which is called the “Sign of Jonah”. It is particularly detailed in saying “3 Days & 3 nights” which is later confirmed through the words of Yeshua in Mat 12:38-40. It is clear that He was in fact to be in the heart of the earth for 3 days & 3 nights. A full 72 hours according to the time reckoned by Yeshua in Joh 11:9 (Day = 12 hours / Night = 12 hours ; 3Days & 3Nights = 72 hours)
4. Does it matter whether it’s 1 day, 2 days or 3 days?
Some believers are quick to shrug off this sort of topic saying “all that matters is that He died and rose again – it doesn’t matter whether He died on Friday or any other day”. While it is true that victory over death matters above all, we must ask the critical question “why do we believe in a death and resurrection of a Saviour?”. The reason is that the Scriptures have prophesied in such an event. If there was no such event recorded, how were people to believe the claims of Yeshua? How could He say “These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me” (Luk 24:44). How could Paul write “Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures” (1Cor 15:3,4)
The “Sign of Jonah” was truly what Yeshua and Paul were referring to.
5. Questioning today’s belief of Christ’s Death on Good Friday
The “Sign of Jonah” is clear. Yeshua had to fulfill the Scriptures by being in the belly of the earth for three days and three nights. From the time of death and entombment to the time of resurrection and rising from the tomb should have been 3 days and 3 nights. So how is a Friday evening death and burial to sunday early morning resurrection provide 3 days & 3 nights? It barely gives 1 day and 2 nights. So what happened to the rest of the 2 days and 1 night?
Can the majority ever be wrong? and for so long? They can be, when no one questions the accepted teaching, believing it while not testing it against the word critically. Even though this wrong teaching of Friday death to Sunday Resurrection has existed for more than 100 years, in their ignorance, these teachers accepted one fact – that the Sabbath day is in fact the modern Saturday. This teaching is based on only one assumption. That Yeshua died before a Sabbath, and rose after a Sabbath – which gave them Friday(death) – Saturday(Sabbath) – Sunday(resurrection). Now let’s find out the true mystery behind the 3 days & 3 nights or as we know it now “The Sign of Jonah”.
6. How Yeshua died before the Sabbath, lay in the Tomb for 3 Days and 3 Nights, and still rose after the Sabbath
It is imperative that we understand God’s Feast days for this part of the study, and if you are not familiar with these concepts and scriptures, I welcome you to read the post “Good Friday or Passover” before we go further. If you have a working knowledge of God’s Feast days and what is known as the HIgh Sabbaths, lets continue.
Since Passover could fall on any day of the week each year, not being constrained to a particular day of the week, in that Particular year in which Yeshua died, for all the Scriptures to not have any inconsistencies, Passover would have fallen on a Wednesday. It would have all taken place as per list given below:
Wednesday – 14th of 1st Month – Passover (Yeshua dies and is buried before eve/sundown)
Thursday – 15th of 1st Month – 1st day of Unleavened Bread – High/Special Sabbath
Friday – 16th of 1st Month – 2nd day of Unleavened Bread
Saturday – 17th of 1st Month – 3rd day of Unleavened Bread – Fixed /Regular Sabbath
Sunday – 18th of 1st Month – By the time the women came, Yeshua had risen
Wednesday Sundown to Thursday Sundown – 1st Day (1Day + 1Night)
Thursday Sundown to Friday Sundown – 2nd Day (1Day + 1Night)
Friday Sundown to Saturday Sundown – 3rd Day (1Day + 1Night)
A basic knowledge of God’s Feast days provide an all important clue to the mystery of the fulfillment of the Sign of Jonah. On how Yeshua died before the Sabbath, rose after the Sabbath, and was still in the tomb for 3 days and 3 nights. Anyone who understands God’s Feast days know that these were all prophetic foreshadows of the work of the Messiah. Yeshua died on the 1st feast day “Passover”, was buried on the 2nd feast day “Unleavened Bread” and rose on the 3rd feast day “Firstfruits“. (He also sent the promised Holy Spirit on the 4th feast day “Pentecost” and is going to return on the feast day “Trumpets“). It is also basic knowledge that the day following Passover is always a “High/Special Sabbath” known as the 1st day of Unleavened Bread(Lev 23:7, Num 28:18). This is why John specifically mentions “for that sabbath day was an high day“, speaking of the day following Passover(Joh 19:31). If the mainstream Christian teachers who taught and still teach of Christ’s death on Good Friday, understood a little bit about God’s Feast Days mentioned in Leviticus 23, they would know how to reconcile “The sign of Jonah – 3 Days & 3 Nights” and the “Death before the Sabbath & Resurrection after the Sabbath”.
It is imperative that we stop teaching that He died on Good Friday, and stick to the facts. He died on Passover, which could not have been Friday that particular year, if the “Sign of Jonah was to be fulfilled through Yeshua.
The Sign of Jonah is THE only prophecy that was connected and specifically spoken of, in light of Yeshua’s death and Resurrection – being cited as evidence for His Messiah-ship. In light of this, Three Days & Three Nights in the belly of the earth needed fulfillment with absolute necessity, so that the Scriptures were fulfilled. As we have seen, the doctrine of Good Friday does not hold water when it comes to the fulfillment of this Prophecy, as there were only 1½ days of entombment according to this common teaching. With a little bit of knowledge in the Scriptures, we can start to understand the fact that the Sabbaths mentioned in the Gospels in regard to Yeshua’s death and resurrection are 2 separate days instead of the single weekly Sabbath day as taught by mainstream Christianity. Yeshua died on Passover, which fell on a Wednesday, the year He died. This does not mean that we stop celebrating Good Friday, and now start celebrating Good Wednesday. Rather, we must start celebrating God’s Feast of Passover which is the day when all of us were saved from death, by God who passed over our lives through the Blood of Yeshua smeared on the door posts of our hearts.
One of the regular comments I hear about “Sabbath observance”, is that the 1st Century Church met on the “1st Day of the Week” and not on the “Sabbath”. Did Peter, Paul, James and the rest of the Disciples in the 1st Century change the day of worship from “The Sabbath” to “The 1st Day of the Week”? This is an examination of the Greek behind our English translations in an attempt to understand what “The 1st Day of the Week” meant in the Original Greek Manuscripts. I encourage all of you, who take the time to examine the following, to do your own research and test these conclusions.
»The following examination will review Greek Words using the Strong’s Greek Concordance. It maybe slightly technical, but I have tried to keep it as simple as possible. The Strong’s Greek Concordance numbers will accompany the related word within brackets (eg. G4521) for each reviewed verse. The below examination will reveal that the phrase “First day of the Week” did not have the word “day” in the Greek Manuscripts. Accordingly, our examination will show, that this phrase should read “First Week” or “First of the Weeks”. The term “First Week” or “First of the Weeks” refer to the “First” of the seven “Weeks” in the 50 day count from Christ’s Resurrection(Firstfruits) to Pentecost. Our examinations will arrive at the conclusion, that wherever the New Testament reads “First day of the Week”, it actually meant “First Week” or “First of the Weeks” in Greek. And that it exclusively referred to the “First” of the seven “Weeks” in the 7 Week count towards the day of Pentecost as seen in Lev 23:15,16, Deut 16:9,10.«
There are only 8 verses overall, in the New Testament writings, with the term “First day of the Week”. It will be our objective to check each of these 8 verses to better understand what this phrase means. The verses are as follows:
Mat 28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
Mar 16:2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
Mar 16:9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
Luk 24:1 Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
Joh 20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
Joh 20:19 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
Act 20:7 And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.
1Co 16:2 Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.
What most people do not understand is that, all of the above verses are connected (in some way or the other) to some of the Feasts/Appointed times of God(Passover, Week of Unleavened Bread, Firstfruits & Pentecost[50 days or Feast of Weeks]). Because of this, we need to have some background information that will help us better understand the above Scriptures before we start our examination.
A. Christ died on the day of Passover(Joh 18:28, 19:14, Mat 27:46-50, Mar 15:33-37, Luk 23:44-46). This is not a fixed day, such as “Friday” on our modern Calendars. Passover could fall on any day of the week, and depends solely on the Biblical Calendar(Lev 23:5). Read this post for more information
B. Passover eve starts off the days of Unleavened Bread which continues on for 7 days(Lev 23:6-8). The day following Passover, which is the 1st day of Unleavened Bread is always a “Special/High Sabbath” (Lev 23:7). It is known as a Special/High Sabbath, because it can fall on any day of the week, unlike the fixed 7th day Sabbath. (Joh 19:31) Read this post for more information
C. Christ’s resurrection happened on the day of Firstfruits. This is the day after the 7th day Sabbath which follows Passover(Mt 28:1-6, Mar 16:2-4, Luke 24:1-3, Joh 20:1,2). In other words, It is always the 1st Day of the week following Passover(Lev 23:10,11). Read this post for more information
D. Pentecost which means “50 days”, is counted from the Day of First Fruits. Pentecost will always fall after 50 days(7 weeks) from the Feast of Firstfruits (Lev 23:15,16, Deut 16:9,10) which is the day Christ rose from the Dead. Read this post for more information
E. For example, if Passover fell on the 4th Day(Wed) of the Week, the 5th Day(Thur) of that same week would be the 1st Day of unleavened bread which would be a special/high Sabbath. The 7th Day(Sat) of the week would be the regular fixed Sabbath. The next day, which is the 1st Day(Sun) of the next week will be the Day of Firstfruits. Counting 50 days from the Day of Firstfruits, brings us to the feast of Pentecost(exactly 7 weeks from the day of first fruits).
With the above information by our side, let’s start our examination. The 8 verses highlighted at the onset of this study has been broken down into 3 parts.
PART 1 – The “First day of the Week” and the Resurrection of Christ
Fact #1: Christ rose from the dead on the day of firstfruits(Sunday after Passover), which begins the 7 week (50 day) count towards Pentecost/Feast of Weeks.
Fact #2: Out of the 6 instances/verses given below, none of them carry the word “day” in the Greek. This word is given in italics in most English Bible Translations, denoting that it is a word inserted by translators.
Fact #3: If the word “day” is dropped from all of these verses, it would read “The First Week” or “The First of the Weeks”
Fact #4: In all of the below verses, (as Yeshua rose on the day of Firstfruits) the week that had begun or dawned, was in fact, “The First Week” or “The First of the Weeks” towards Pentecost/Feast of Weeks, as it was a counting of 7 Weeks that led to Pentecost.
Mat 28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first(G3391) day of the week(G4521), came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
Mar 16:2 And very early in the morning the first(G3391) day of the(G3588) week(G4521), they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.
Mar 16:9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first(G4413) day of the week(G4521), he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils.
Luk 24:1 Now upon the first(G3391) day of the(G3588) week(G4521), very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
Joh 20:1 The first(G3391) day of the(G3588) week(G4521) cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
Joh 20:19 Then the same day at evening, being the first(G3391) day of the(G3588) week(G4521), when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
G3391 – μία – mia – Irregular feminine of G1520; one or first: – a (certain), + agree, first, one, X other.
G3588 – ὁ, ἡ, τό – ho hē to – The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom): – the, this, that, one, he, she, it, etc.
G4413 – πρῶτος – prōtos – Contracted superlative of G4253; foremost (in time, place, order or importance): – before, beginning, best, chief (-est), first (of all), former.
G4521 – σάββατον – sabbaton – Of Hebrew origin [H7676]; the Sabbath (that is, Shabbath), or day of weekly repose from secular avocations (also the observance or institution itself); by extension a se’nnight, that is, the interval between two Sabbaths; likewise the plural in all the above applications: – sabbath (day), week.
PART 2 – The “First day of the Week” and the breaking of bread by the Disciples
Fact #1: Similar to the 6 verses highlighted in PART 1, Acts 20:7 does not carry the word “day”
Fact #2: Acts 20:6 highlights that Paul sailed from Phillipi amid* the days of unleavened bread, coming to troas in 5 days and dwelling there for 7 days, placing the breaking of bread comfortably in “The First Week” or “The First of the Weeks” towards Pentecost/Feast of Weeks.
Act 20:6 And we sailed away from Philippi after(G3326)* the days of unleavened bread, and came unto them to Troas in five days; where we abode seven days.
Act 20:7 And upon the first(G3391) day of the(G3588) week(G4521), when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.
*G3326 – μετά – meta – A primary preposition (often used adverbially); properly denoting accompaniment; “amid” (local or causal); modified variously according to the case (genitive case association, or accusative case succession) with which it is joined; occupying an intermediate position between G575 or G1537 and G1519 or G4314; less intimate than G1722, and less close than G4862): – after (-ward),X that he again, against, among, X and, + follow, hence, hereafter, in, of, (up-) on, + our, X and setting, since, (un-) to, + together, when, with (+ -out). Often used in composition, in substantially the same relations of participation or proximity, and transfer or sequence.
PART 3 – The “First day of the Week” and the collection for the saints in Jerusalem
Fact #1: Similar to the verses highlighted in PART 1 & PART 2, 1Cor 16:2 does not carry the word “day”
Fact #2: The collection mentioned in this verse was to be taken to Jerusalem
Fact #3: Visiting Jerusalem 3 times a year for the feasts, including Pentecost/Feast of Weeks, was a Commandment given by God(Deut 16:16), and Paul was aware of it (Act 20:16)
Fact #4: Paul mentions that he will stay in Ephesus till Pentecost in 1Cor 16:8, which would mean that Pentecost/Feast of Weeks was at hand, connecting 1Cor 16 verse 2 with verse 8.
Fact #5: This would mean that Paul was asking the believers to gather the collection for the saints in Jerusalem in “The First Week” or “The First of the Weeks” towards Pentecost/Feast of Weeks, rather than waiting to collect the offering till his arrival.
Fact #6: This could not have been a weekly collection as it was supposed to be sent to Jerusalem
1Cor 16:1 Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.
1Cor 16:2 Upon the first(G3391) day of the week(G4521) let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.
1Cor 16:3 And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem.
Another Clue: Luke’s mention of the Second Sabbath after the First in Luk 6:1
Fact #1: The phrase “Second Sabbath after the First” makes little sense in the below verse. Understanding that Seven Weeks/Sabbaths were supposed to be numbered from Firstfruits till the Pentecost/Feast of Weeks, helps us understand this phrase better.
Fact #2: According to Luke, this event happened in the 2nd Week of 7 Weeks towards Pentecost
Fact #3: This is a clear indication that the numbering of “Weeks” leading upto Pentecost/Feast of Weeks was a well known fact by Scholars such as Luke, in the 1st Century, which was used as a marker to highlight a time of year
Fact #4: The timing given by Luke (2nd Week towards Pentecost) and the disciples walking through the corn fields also make absolute sense, as this would be the time when fields are beginning to ripen and are full with grain.
Luk 6:1 And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first(G1207)(G4521), that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.
G1207 – δευτερόπρωτος – deuteroprōtos – From G1208 and G4413; second first, that is, (specifically) a designation of the Sabbath immediately after the Paschal week (being the second after Passover day, and the first of the seven Sabbaths intervening before Pentecost): – second . . . after the first.
The 8 verses that carry the phrase “First day of the Week” in the New Testament writings should ideally read “The First Week” or “The First of the Weeks”. Each of the 8 instances/verses in question relate to the “time” (of counting seven weeks) that lead towards Pentecost. While “First day of the Week” misinterprets and misrepresents the New Testament accounts leading people to believe that “Sunday” replaced the “Sabbath” which was commanded by God and adhered to by Yeshua & His believers, it is my belief that the above evidence proves that no such change happened at all. The only verses that are used to promote “Sunday” observance instead of the “Sabbath”, are not speaking of the “First day of the Week”, but are speaking of the “First Week” leading upto Pentecost as a marker of time. I hope all of you do your own research whether this conclusion is true, so that all of us better understand the Scriptures leading people out of the massive confusion most bible translations have made over the years.
Q1. What about the “Lord’s Day”? Isn’t that “Sunday”? The only mention made of “The Lord’s Day” in the whole of the New Testament happens in Rev 1:10. There is no evidence to believe that this is “sunday”. If at all, the day that is referred here by John, could be the “Day of the Lord”(2Pet 3:10, 1Thes 5:2, Act 2:20, Mal 4:5, Joe 2:31) which is the day when He brings judgement at His return.
Q2. Can we be sure that just because the word “day” is not seen in the Greek, it is not insinuated,and should be read as the “First day of the Week”? There are numerous examples in the New Testament where the word “day”(G2250 – ἡμέρα – hēmera) is used along with a number (eg. first day[Mar 14:12], third day[Joh 2:1], seventh day[Heb 4:4], eighth day[Luk 1:59], etc.). The fact is, it is not used even once in these 8 instances where it could have been easily used. If it was meant to be read as “First day of the Week” and not “First Week” or “First of the Weeks”, the writers could have easily included the word day in each of these verses.
Happy New Year!!!! Biblically speaking of course.
Even though January 1st is celebrated as the beginning of the year over the world, as Christians, we need to consider that the Biblical New Year is far more important to us, than a day that was picked by the Romans.
1st of January and the beginning of the standard western/christian calendar
The month of January is named after an ancient Roman god named Janus/Ianus, who was the Roman god of doorways & archways, depicted having two faces, as the Romans believed he looked at the future as well as the past. As far back as 153BC, Roman consuls came to power on January 1st. In 45BC, when Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar, January 1st became the official new year of the Roman Empire which has continued to be so, for more than 2000 years.
This ancient Julian Calendar which went through a few refinements in the year 1582 by Roman Catholic Pope Gregory XIII, is now known as the Gregorian Calendar. January 1st, remains from more than 2000 years ago, as the beginning of the Roman Year, a creation of the Roman Empire.
1st of Abib and the beginning of the Biblical calendar made by our Heavenly Father
The month of Abib/Aviv does not coincide with a month in the standard western calendar in any way. This means that the 1st day of the Biblical Year could fall on any day in the season of March/April. The biblical calendar is not one which is set in paper, but which is set in the heavens. When our Creator made the Sun, Moon & Stars, He proclaimed “let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years”.
What is Abib?
In the book of Exodus, as Moses brought about the 7th Plague which was “Hail”, we read the following
“Exo 9:31,32 And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear(Abib), and the flax was bolled. But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up“
The Hebrew word “Abib” is translated here as “was in the ear”. The Strong’s Hebrew Concordance explains it as – H24 – אביב – aw-beeb’ – a young ear of grain; hence the name of the month Abib or Nisan
Abib is the Hebrew word used for the state of a crop which is, in between the stage of green colour ripening and completely ripe golden streaks. It is the stage when the grain is a light yellowish green colour. In the above passage we see that the barley crops were destroyed by hail while the wheat and rie were not damaged. The reason being, grains which are early in its development are flexible, becoming brittle as it ripens. The barley was destroyed and the wheat was not, as the barley had reached the stage in its development called Abib, becoming brittle enough to be damaged by the hail, while the wheat and rie were still early in their development, where they were flexible enough not to be damaged.
Exo 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
Exo 13:4 This day came ye out in the month Abib.
Exo 34:18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.
We know that after the 7th Plague mentioned in Exo 9:30,31, two more plagues came over Egypt (namely locusts & Darkness for 3 days) before the 10th plague (Death of the Firstborn). The Passover happened on the 14th day of the First Biblical Month (Exo 12:2,6,11) freeing the children of Israel from slavery. As per Exo 9:30,31 the Barley was in the state of Abib, at the time of the 7th plague. Exo 12:2, 13:4, 34:18 further proves that the month in which the Children of Israel were set free from slavery was the first month, as per God’s directions. Not only is “Abib” the first month, it derives its name from the state of Barley known as “Abib” in the Scriptures.
But how does one go about uncovering the beginning of the biblical Year on his/her own?
The Biblical month is calculated by the revolutions of the Moon. One cycle of the moon, where it goes from dark to fully lit and dark again is known as a month. In fact, the words “Month” and “Moon” are interchangeable in the Hebrew language. Please read this study for more information. At the time when the first sliver is visible in the evening sky, the new month has begun.
With the above information from the Bible in hand, we can easily figure out the first month of the Biblical year. When the Barley is in the state of “Abib” and when you sight the sliver of the moon, a new Biblical Month has dawned. This was the case on the eve of Mar 31st, making the 1st of April 2014, the beginning of the Biblical Year this time around. Happy New Year!!!! and may you celebrate our Creator’s Appointed times as per His Commandment and as imitators of Christ!
The Biblical Feast dates/Appointed times of YHVH for the year 2014
(Please note that the below dates are only for the year 2014. These will not be the same next year)
1. Passover – begins on the eve/sundown of April 13 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 14 (The Passover Meal in remembrance of YHVH’s Salvation/Death of Christ is shared on the eve of April 14)
2. 1st Day of Unleavened Bread – begins on the eve/sundown of April 14 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 15 (This day is a High/Special Sabbath – no monetary work may be done on this day)
3. First Fruits – begins on the eve/sundown of April 19 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 20th
4. 7th Day of Unleavened Bread – begins on the eve/sundown of April 20 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 21 (This day is a High/Special Sabbath – no monetary work may be done on this day)
5. Shavuot/Pentecost – begins on the eve/sundown of June 7 and ends on the eve/sundown of June 8 (This day is a High/Special Sabbath – no monetary work may be done on this day)
The final 3 Biblical Feasts, which are Trumpets, Atonement & Tabernacles will be known only when we sight the 7th New Moon.