Historical Proof that Saturday is the Sabbath

Most of us have been taught that the Sabbath Day has been changed/moved to Sunday or that it is impossible to know the correct day which was kept as the Sabbath, even in the time of Christ. Even though there is no Scriptural or Historical proof to backup the theory that the Sabbath was changed to Sunday, by Christ or any of the Disciples, this is not what we hope to examine in this study.

This post provides 3 clear witnesses, as evidence to prove that the “Sabbath” day in the New Testament is in fact the day which is presently known as “Saturday”. The facts will be laid out for every discerning student of the Scriptures, to examine for themselves. Can history prove that the day we now call “Saturday” is the same day which was observed by Christ and His Disciples as the “Sabbath”? Let us examine the evidence.

Paul, in his first letter to Timothy writes “Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses”(1Ti 5:19) quoting a Law on judging people which was taken from the Old Testament(Deut 19:15). Similarly, we will also provide 3 witnesses to make the case that the word “Sabbath” was in fact the day which is known as “Saturday”. We sincerely hope that you will hear the facts from the 3 witnesses and decide for yourself, what verdict should be given.

Calling of Witnesses

Witness #1
Pg 75, Jesus in Context: Background Readings for Gospel Study - edited by Darrell L. Bock, Gregory J. HerrickA Roman historian named Cassius Dio who wrote about Roman History, gives an account of Wars waged between Rome & Judea. In it he explains the capture of Jerusalem in 63BC saying “As it was, they made an exception of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came round in succession, assaulted most vigorously.  Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn, without making any defense, and all the wealth was plundered”. Cassius wrote that the Romans who learned that the Jews rested on the Days of Saturn (Saturday which was known as Saturn’s Day in Rome), attacked the Jerusalem stronghold on those days. These words also tally with the writings of Josephus, showing us that Saturn’s Day in Rome coincided with the day kept as the Sabbath by the Jews, even in the 1st Century BC.
Reference – Cassius Dio – Roman History 37.16.1-4 [A]

Witness #2
Pg 97, Sunday in Roman Paganism - By Robert Leo OdomA Roman Soldier named Frontinus in his book named Strategems writes the account of the destruction of the 2nd temple in Jerusalem in 70AD, saying “The divine Vespasian attacked the Jews on the days of Saturn, on which it is forbidden for them to do anything serious, and prevailed.” Similar to the words of the historian Cassius Dio, this Roman soldier equated the day of rest (Sabbath) of the Jews to the Day of Saturn (Saturday which was known as Saturn’s Day in Rome). This account of Vespasian (also known as Titus) attacking Jerusalem on Sabbath days, tallies with the account seen in the Historical works of Josephus as well.
Reference – Frontinus – The Stratagems 2.1.17. [B]

Witness #3

Strong's Greek Concordance

The meaning of the Greek word Sabbaton (G4521) alongside all the occurrences in the New Testament

The Greek Language and the ancient Manuscripts of the New Testament also give evidence of the connection between the word “Sabbath” and the day which has been named “Saturday”. The Greek word “Sabbaton”(Strong’s Greek Concordance – G4521 – σάββατον) used in the Original Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament which is translated as “Sabbath” in English, is the same word that is used for “Saturday” in the Greek language even today. In other words, the day which is known to us as “Saturday”, is called “Sabbato” (σάββατο) by the Greeks even today. This is a remarkable piece of evidence which has survived almost untouched to our very present age, making “Sabbath” and “Saturday” one in the same. Saturday translated to GreekA person who is unsure about this fact can look at any Greek-English Dictionary to seek further verification. The easiest tool to translate English into Greek that anyone could use would be Google Translate, as seen in the thumbnail to your right. This goes to prove that wherever we see the word “Sabbath” in our New Testament English translations, it originally meant a particular day (which is proven to be none other than what we know as “Saturday” today.
Reference – Strong’s Greek Concordance & Dictionary [C]


Some bring objections against the above witnesses by arguing that one of the major calendar changes in history would have also affected the “Saturday Sabbath”. We need to consider this valid objection and see whether it holds true. This piece of evidence that is brought against our 3 witnesses is the “Julian to Gregorian calendar change”.

The Julian calendar was instituted in 46BC by Julius Caesar and was the most widely used calendar in Rome, making this the calendar which the Romans would have used in the time of Christ and subsequently His disciples.

The Gregorian calendar which is the civil calendar used by the whole world today, was put into effect in 1582AD by Pope Gregory XIII. Pope Gregory’s Calendar effectively skipped a few days, when this change was made to the Julian calendar in 1582. This is what most who object bring as a witness to say that the “Saturday Sabbath” would have for sure changed with this change that was done to the calendar system.

Calendar change from Julian to GregorianWhat most people do not understand is that the amount of days dropped from the Julian Calendar, when it was changed to the Gregorian calendar, did not in anyway effect the 7 day week. In other words, even though 10 days were removed from the calendar, it did not effect the individual days (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, etc.). An example is given in the above thumbnail which indicates this change of Calendars that was put into effect in 1752 in the UK. Note how the removal of days do not effect the 7 day week. (Please refer this link for more information on this subject)

Closing Argument

The testimony of the 3 witnesses makes it very clear that the Day which is known today as “Saturday” is none other than the “Sabbath” mentioned in the New Testament. The “Day of Saturn” or “Satur-day” was the day known by the Romans to be the same day as what was observed by the Jews as the Sabbath. The Greek word “Sabbaton” is the unmistakable proof that the word “Sabbath” in the New Testament, is in fact “Saturday”.

Through reading the New Testament alone, we know that the Pharisees disagreed on how Yeshua observed the Sabbath, but there were no arguments made against the day that was observed by Christ. This makes it clear that the same day that Christ kept in accordance to God’s 4th commandment (Mark 1:21, 6:2, Luke 4:16, 13:10) was the day which was widely observed by the Jews as the “Sabbath”.  This is also the same day that the disciples including Paul observed (Luke 23:56, Act 13:14, 15:21, 17:2, 18:4).

If Yeshua(Jesus’ true name) also kept God’s rest day on “Saturday”, it would be highly unlikely that the “Sabbath” instituted and instructed by God Almighty could be any other day. And because the 7 day week has not been effected in anyway for the past 2000 years, the “Saturday Sabbath” also has not been exposed to any change, making each “Saturday” the “Sabbath” day, instituted by our Heavenly Father and followed by Christ and His disciples. It is upto each of us to look at the provided evidence and make a judgement for ourselves. Whether we believe the Sabbath is “Saturday” as the witnesses suggest, or whether we refuse it, is completely in our own hands.

[A] Pg 75, Jesus in Context: Background Readings for Gospel Study – edited by Darrell L. Bock, Gregory J. Herrick
[B] Pg 97, Sunday in Roman Paganism – By Robert Leo Odom
[C] Pg 1154, Main Concordance & Pg 79, Greek Dictionary of the New Testament – The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Nelson’s KJV) – James Strong

18 thoughts on “Historical Proof that Saturday is the Sabbath

  1. Sheila

    I really agree with your explanation and the proves you provided . It is my greatest wish that all people could read and know that Sabbath is truly Sabbath

  2. Gast

    A Roman historian named Cassius Dio who wrote about Roman History, gives an account of Wars waged between Rome & Judea. In it he explains the capture of Jerusalem in 63BC saying…

    BC should be corrected as AD.

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Gast, Thank you for reading the post. I must point out that 63BC is correct in this case, as the historical account Cassius Dio is providing is of the siege of Jerusalem that happened in 63BC when the Hasmoneons were in power (Pompey intervened for Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was taken away) – hence it should not be 63AD, but 63BC.
      Thank You
      Be a blessing to all around you!

  3. Wayne

    If you believe the day of Saturn on the Roman calendar is the Sabbath, then I have a question for you. How was the Sabbath determined before the creation of the Roman calendar in the year 46 BC?
    I have another question. Where in scripture are we given instructions to formulate a lunar calendar or to add a thirteenth month every few years?

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Wayne,
      The 7th day Sabbath instituted by God does not depend on the Roman Calendar. The post just provides skeptics with additional proof that the Sabbath coincided with the day of Saturn in the Roman calendar… which is Saturday still on our Gregorian Calendars.

      The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. vol. 4, p. 988, tells us: The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to the celestial motions — a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable uniformity… It has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries. The Hebrew people spoke of the days of the week by number rather than by name. The only day that had a name was the seventh day which was called Shabat, the Sabbath, or the rest day. In at least 108 different languages the name for the seventh day, corresponding to our “Saturday”, is a word meaning “rest day.”

      In the post I have provided sufficient evidence to show that the Biblical Month is connected with the Moon – hence the months depended on the Moon sightings. Please read below link for additional info:

      On the question of adding a 13th month to a year:- no one needed to add a 13th Month to the biblical year, as the two witnesses of Abib Barley and the sighting of the New Moon would have ushered in the Biblical New Year. Whether there are 12 moon cycles or 13 moon cycles between the start of the Biblical year is of no consequence to God’s calendar and His Appointed Times.

      May you be a blessing to everyone around you!

  4. vivmass

    dear rames the saturns feast was held on december 17 which was a sunday please check your hebrew and your greek before creating a post like this 🙂

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Dear Brother/Sister,
      I believe you are confusing the Saturnalia Festival with the day of Saturn. As the Historical evidence shows, Jews were forbidden to work on a particular day of the week – which was the Sabbath. This same day is known by these Historians to be Saturn’s Day, from which we derive Saturday. Please let me know where I have erred regarding Hebrew and Greek, as you have pointed out.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you!

  5. Pingback: What is the Lord’s Day? Sunday, Sabbath or something else? | Bible things in Bible ways

  6. Pingback: Bible things in Bible ways | Jesus Christ Lord Savior

  7. Matt atwood

    Oh wow, so let me get this straight, the Romans, who cruxified Jesus, and the very guards ordered to guard his tomb, were commanded to lie about his ressurection so that the people would not know the truth. The same Romans who declared anything Jewish was outlawed and commanded by death. The same Romans that ordered the very history of Jesus to be covered up.

    Even after all of this, their still considered reputable witnesses to you? Wow . . .

    1. rameshdesilva Post author

      Hi Matt,
      I hope you are not saying that we cannot rely on any of their historical writings… especially ones which were written about their victories.
      Be a blessing to everyone around you

  8. Kay Crick

    Saturday has never been the biblical 7th day Sabbath. Saturday is the pagan Catholic 7th day. There is a huge difference.

  9. John Morris

    Neither Saturday nor Sunday
    Wrong calendar; Mans calendar.
    Julius Caesar’s Calendar.
    Pope Gregory’s Calendar.

    The Moedim of YHWH all on one calendar.
    Weekly Sabbath, New Moon Days, Annual Feasts are all Moedim. All on same calendar.

    Which calendar?
    YHWH’s Calendar (not man’s)
    Determined by the sun and the moon.
    Up in the heavens.
    Where no man can mess with it.

    In Exodus it is recorded that for 3 months in a row, the 15th day was was a Sabbath. Only possible on a calendar utilizing lunar months.

    Sabbath did, and still does, occur on the 8th, 15th, 22nd and 29th days of the month on a lunar calendar.

    There are three types of days and they are all mutually exclusive:
    1. Work days.
    2. Weekly Sabbath (following 6 work days)
    2. New Moon days (following 4 completed weeks – some months have 1, some 2)

    Each month has 29 or 30 days as the moon cycles every 29.1/2 days.

    It has been a huge error of understanding placing the seventh day sabbath on a strictly solar continuous seven day cycle. Torah observant Christians have been duped by those who claim to be the decedents of Shem but who are not. They have been duped by the decedents of Japheth dwelling in the tents of Shem.

    There are 3 types of days which are distinctly separate from each other:-

    1. RameshDeSilva Post author

      Dear John,
      Please check the validity of your argument against the following questions. If the Sabbath falls on 8th, 15th, 22nd & 29th of each month, what about the 1st? (is that day also a Sabbath?) What happens to a 30 day Lunar month? Will there be a 8 day week? If so, how can the work 6 days, but rest on the Sabbath command still hold true?
      Be a blessing to everyone around you

      1. Psalmbirdee

        The new month, new moon day, was a non work day as well. The Sanhedrin were responsible for determining whether the month prior was 29 or would be 30 days. (No planning ahead for these people!)
        The one or two New Moon days were days of worship as the Temple gates were to be open on those days. (Ezek 46:1 )

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